– Are time travelers really real?
– Let’s talk about that. ♪ (theme music) ♪ – Good Mythical Morning!
– Today is October 21st, 2015, the infamous destination day
for Marty McFly and Doc Brown in – Back to the Future Part II.
– Mm! Now, that movie was released in 1989, so
their 26-year leap into the future is now – our present.
– Whoa! And they delivered on a number of
predictions including hoverboards, thumb print payment, drone cameras,
video calling, and the wild popularity of – PewDiePie.
– Oh ho! That’s not true. So, in the spirit of Marty McFly, the
DeLorean, and the Flux Capacitor, we’re gonna be talking about some real
life time travelers! Now, you may remember last year we did an episode called
“4 Cases of Time Travel.” – I do.
– Well, it turns out there are so many amazing cases and claims about time travel
that that’s not enough to cover it! So we did a little boopity-boop-boop-
badoop-boop-boop research and we got – some more for you.
– Lemme hit you with this…open cockpit – biplane pilot from 1935,
– Wow, that’s a mouthful. Sir Robert Victor Goddard, a pilot for the
British Royal Air Force. When you got “Sir” in front of your name and you say
you’ve traveled in time, listen. – Listen to that guy.
– ‘Cause that means he’s like a knight, right? He’s been knighted.
If you’re a “Sir,” right? Well, he was flying during the day,
and it was a round trip flight. – Yep, the best.
– And he’s going to Edinburgh and he looks down on his way and he sees the
abandoned airfield in Drem, Scotland. – You’ve heard of it.
– There it is, yeah. Everybody has. Nothing out of the ordinary here, you
know? Dilapidated tarmac, four hangars in disrepair, pastures with some cows… but
then, on his way back on the round trip, coming back through, he encounters some
problems. He enters a downward spiral, almost dies, okay? But then he recovers
and he finds himself flying in these strange yellow clouds,
and then the clouds– You sure they weren’t yellow puddles
on the inside of the cockpit? (chuckles) Could’ve been. And the clouds
part and he looks down and lo and behold, there is the same Drem Airfield
in Scotland, but now– – (dramatically) In the future!
– It’s totally operational and renovated. It looks good as new. There are four
planes down there painted yellow. Now, we all know that back then the RAF
planes were not painted yellow. – Oh yeah. Who would’ve thought of that?
– There was one monoplane down there which was unlike anything in the Royal Air
Force in 1935. The mechanics’ overalls… you know, they were all working and
bustling down there– they were all wearing blue overalls. You know they don’t
wear blue overalls back then! – This guy’s got good vision.
– They wear what? What color do they – wear back then, Rhett?
– I dunno. – (whispers) Brown.
– Brown! Brown! That’s right. Made it safely back,
tells his friends, they don’t believe him. And then, four years later, 1939, guess
what happened. They did reopen Drem Airfield, and what color did they
paint the training planes? – Yellow.
– Yellow! And they had one monoplane called “The Magister” just like the one he
witnessed, was added to the fleet. And the mechanics’ overalls were
changed to what color, Rhett? – Blue.
– Blue! Was he on the planning committee
for the new Air Force base? – (laughs)
– I mean, there’s a way to confirm that your prediction comes true, just be on
the board of directors. Do you know that – he wasn’t?
– I don’t know. – And maybe he just has insight–
– He was a “Sir.” into aviation fashion. I mean, I could
totally see that going from brown to blue. – He wrote a book!
– Seems innovative. In 1975, called “The Flight Towards
Reality.” That’s good enough for me. I’m gonna read that! Okay, so that’s
his story. I’ve got another story. – A little more recent.
– Top that. Andrew Basiago. This guy’s a lawyer with
five degrees. He’s also a writer and a member of Mensa. He also happens
to be the first child to teleport! – Okay.
– Through time. – Smart lawyer.
– Okay. This guy has gone on Coast to Coast AM, this AM radio
show that’s absolutely amazing. And they don’t just let
anyone on that show. – No, they don’t.
– (Rhett and crew laugh) And he’s told this entire story,
so these are some tidbits from the story. – Okay.
– So, he claims that back in 1968 when he was a boy, he was part of something called
“Project Pegasus,” which is a supposed classified exploration of time travel
and teleportation project sanctioned – by the US government.
– So they would send kids on time travel – excursions?
– Yeah! Yeah, because, you know, I guess the time machines are small.
You gotta put youngsters in there. 140 of ’em supposedly involved in this.
He claims, among a number of things, to have gone back to 1 million BC to
check out the dinosaurs, where he was almost eaten alive. Either he was
misquoted or… 1 million BC is not far enough for the dinosaurs. You gotta go–
remember, like 65 million years is when – they went extinct, so…
– Well, he was a kid. – Maybe he got his math mixed up.
– Maybe. He went to 2045 to pick up some microfilm.
That’s in the future. Can’t wait to see what that is! Microfilm. He’s also said
that he traveled back and forth to Mars as part of the military’s plan to
establish an American presence on the Red Planet, and, for one of those
trips, he was accompanied by none other than President Barack Obama, who, at
that time, was going by the name – “Barry Sotoro.”
– And going through puberty? I mean, what are these, middle
schoolers traveling around Mars? I think it said that Barack was a teenager
at the time, which 1968… doesn’t make a whole lot of sense to me, but… okay,
anyway. As if that wasn’t believable, he says that because of his good
performance in these duties, – Okay.
– he was given the opportunity on November 19, 1863, to go back and see
Lincoln deliver the Gettysburg Address. And there’s photographic
evidence, everybody! – Bring it on!
– Here’s the photo. This is what Andrew says, quote, “I am the boy standing in
the center of the image looking to his right. My shoes were lost in the transit
through the Quantum Plenum that took me from the plasma confinement chamber.
A cobbler–” that’s a shoemaker, not a peach cobbler that you would enjoy–
“by the name of John Lawrence Burns furnished me with a pair of men’s street
shoes and a Union winter parka. In this image, you can see how oversized the shoes
were. When I walked over to this location and stood in this manner to detract
attention from my shoes–” This is how I always stand when I wanna detract
attention from my big shoes. – (Link laughs)
– (Rhett) I just kinda look to the right and point both of ’em
in the same direction. – (laughs)
– “Lincoln had not yet arrived and I only stood in this position for several minutes
before the quantum field effect produced by the plasma confinement chamber ended
and I found myself back in the Time Lab in New Jersey!” So he didn’t get to see the
Gettysburg Address! What a bummer! – But he got some sweet new kicks!
– Yeah he did. – (crew laughs)
– A little oversized, but you know, you can just stand sideways
and nobody’ll notice. – So the proof is right there!
– So, this is photographic evidence. – Proof is in the shoes.
– And this guy’s made quite a stir – on the radio circuit, Link!
– Has he, now? He has. So there’s that.
You got another one? Well, is there any other pictures of
the shoes? Because I’m really into that. Nope, but I could do, like,
a CSI zoom-in on ’em though. On November 2nd, in the year 2000, a user
by the name of “Timetravel_0” began a thread on the Time Travel Institute
Forum’s web site and claimed that he was – from the year 2036.
– Mmhm. And he was like, “I’ll answer
any questions you got.” – (laughs) Here I am at the forum.
– I’m a time traveler and here are my – office hours. Um, so–
– This is the place to go if you come back from the future, though.
The Time Travel Institute forums. – Right.
– I mean… don’t go to the press. Quickly, some of the things you gather
are: he was an American soldier from the year 2036 based in Hillsboro County,
Florida, and his name was John Titor. He started traveling in time as part of
an undercover secret government project where he had to return to the year 1975
and retrieve an IBM 5100 computer – Of course!
– and bring it back to 2036. But instead of just going back to the future, he
stopped in the year 2000 for, quote– Hold on. Why was he getting a computer
from 1975 to solve a problem in the future? To debug the Unix Year
2038 problem, which is– – Oh! Oh, okay. Continue.
– (Rhett and crew laugh) – It’s like Y2K but in 2038.
– Yeah, gotta have those 1975 computers. Instead of going back to the future, he
stopped in the year 2000 for, quote, – “some personal reasons.”
– That was a good year! As he’s answering all these questions in
the forum, he’s giving all types of details. You can read all this stuff.
It’s really fascinating. He explained time travel, he said he travels using a
Displacement Unit that was made by General Electric. He’s very forthright.
He scanned user manuals. – He had a brand integration in his story.
– (laughs) – GE!
– (both laugh) Yeah. And he showed pictures of equipment
and he had taken those photos with – Polaroid cameras.
– Yeah. He’s into retro stuff. – (laughs)
– He goes back to 1975, he only takes – Polaroids… I like this guy.
– So, the situation is, you know, if in 2036, this guy was in the military,
then, if you look at the range of time, – well, right now in 2015–
– He’s alive right now. ‘Cause they’re not gonna send, like, an 18-year-old
on this mission. Well, if they did, he could be about to be
born, or he could be in grade school. – No, Link, he’s alive.
– Most likely. You can’t be but at least 30 years old to
go on a mission like this, so 30 years old in 2036, he’s like 9 years old
right now. This is a 9-year-old! John! – And he’s going to be a time traveler.
– Well, we should have him on the show. – Right. Or his mom. Or both.
– Or both! You can both come. If you don’t travel by yourself,
come with your mom. I don’t care. Now, his mom went on Coast to Coast
and, speaking through a lawyer, because she actually wouldn’t talk, the lawyer
was trying to support her case of being John’s mother, and that didn’t really
amount to much. But I think we can get to the bottom of it, especially,
John, if you reach out to us. Bring your Polaroids, bring your mom, and
bring a 1975 computer. We’ve got a NASCAR – computer we can trade.
– John predicted that a world war in 2015 – would kill 3 billion people, so…
– Oh, there’s still some time left. There’s some other predictions I can
go through in Good Mythical More, but for now, I’m pretty excited
about the cases for time travel! – (laughs)
– Let us know what you think in the – comments.
– Thanks for liking and commenting and – subscribing.
– You know what time it is. – Hi, I’m Avery.
– Hi, I’m Shea. – Hi, I’m Sophie.
– Hi, I’m Liv. Hi, I’m Ava, and it’s my birthday. (all) And it’s time to spin the
Wheel of Mythicality! Woooooo! Today is the last day that you can get
the hoverboard shirt! You have to act – (both) now!
– to get that shirt, people! – (Rhett) RhettandLink.com/store.
– Click through to Good Mythical More. We are gonna play Guess that
Celebrity Time Traveler Game. (high pitched) Ooh, it’s gonna be so fun! Rhett’s got some pictures
of celebrities in the past. (Rhett) Unisong about beepers. – ♪ (both) Beep, beep, beep, beep, beep ♪
– ♪ What’s that sound… ♪ – ♪ coming from my pocket ♪
– (both) ♪ it’s a beeper ♪ ♪ (both) Beep, beep, beep! What’s that
sound coming from my belt loop? ♪ – ♪ It’s my beeper! Beep, beep, beep ♪
– ♪ Let me take you to the future ♪ – ♪ But not really ♪
– (crew laughs) – ♪ (both) Take me to the future ♪
– ♪ Gonna meet John Teeter ♪ – (laughs)
– Titor. I said “Teeter.” [Captioned by Caitrin:
GMM Captioning Team]
Is time travel possible? Everyone has thought about time travel at least once Maybe you wanted to go back in time and try to change something from your past There are even a lot of science fiction movies out there that involve time travel or were inspired by time travel in some way or another But is it really possible to travel back or forward in time and if it is really possible, what would we have to do in order to make time travel a reality? the very thought about time travel and what it would take to make it a reality is mind blowing it is something that scientist There is a speed limit of 300,000 km/s or 186,000 milles per second for anything that travels through spacetime and light always travels the speed limit through empty space, so more about the solution of time special relativity says that a suprising thing happens to you when you move through spacetime especially when your speed relative to other objects is close to the speed of light Time goes slower for you than for the people you left behind
Imagine you own a watch that let’s you travel through time. One day, you get the bright idea to travel back to the 1920’s to mess with your grandparents. You press a few buttons, and suddenly you’re standing beside old Pappy who is taking in the scenery at the precipice of the Grand Canyon. Since you’ve never been the biggest fan of your grandfather, you decide to push him over the edge. Gravity does its thing, and a few seconds later, no more Pappy. But wait, if you killed your grandfather before he ever met your grandmother… you wouldn’t have been born to be able to go back in time and kill him! Here’s the problem. If you didn’t exist and killed your grandfather, you couldn’t have killed him… Because you didn’t kill him, he’s still alive. but that would mean that you yourself would be alive and now you can go back in time to kill him. And so the endless loop goes on. This is called the Grandfather Paradox. And it’s part of what makes time travel so interesting. The grandfather paradox deals with time travel on a significant scale. But why don’t we start with something a little smaller? Let’s say you and I are wearing identical watches and we synchronize them right before I blast off into space. In the space shuttle, I’m traveling at roughly 28,000 kilometers per hour relative to the Earth. If I make a few orbits around the Earth before I return, when we compare watches, we’ll see that less time has passed for me. A very, very tiny amount of time, but is there nonetheless. This is called time dilation, and it simply means that according to Einstein’s theory of Relativity, Time measured along different trajectories is affected by differences in either gravity or velocity – each of which affects time in different ways. One example of time dilation is when we compare the passage of time on the ISS versus on Earth. After spending six months on the Space Station, astronauts have aged approximately .005 seconds less than those of us here on Earth. Of course, this is a very insignificant amount of time, but it would be much more apparent if the astronauts were able to travel to closer to the speed of light. Interestingly, the effects of time dilation are fairly minor, even up to around 70% of the speed of light. However, once we reach 75% or so, the effects become dramatic. Now, bear with me here, because this is where things get a bit weird. Possibly the strangest aspect of special relativity is the distances shrink in the direction of motion. When we think of traveling to a point 10 light years away at 90% of light speed, you’d expect it to take 11 years, right? That’s not exactly the case. To a stationary observer, it would indeed
seem to take your vessel 11 years. But to the people inside the vessel,
not only time, but distance would dilate and you would reach that point in only 4.4 years. Want to play with time dilation yourself? I’ve added a link down below to a time dilation calculator. Okay, that’s all really fascinating, but is it really time travel? Perhaps not in the sense that we usually think of it, but according to the nature of
space-time, it is. If you were to return home from your 90% light speed trip, you would be almost 9 years older. But everyone back on Earth would have aged 22 years. So in essence, you’ve traveled 13 years into the future relative to your time in space. let’s look at another example. In the film Interstellar, Cooper and his team land on a large watery planet, on which gravity is 30% stronger than on Earth.
This planet is situated very close to a supermassive black hole called Gargantua, which it orbits at 55% of light. Gargantua’s mass is equal to that of 100,000,000 suns and spins at 99.8% the speed of light. The combination of all these factors have the effect of slowing down time relative to the astronaut left aboard the ship, by a staggering 61,000 times. That means that 1 hour on the planet is equal to seven years aboard the ship. When the team makes it back to the vessel after a little over three of their hours, their friend had aged by 23 years. The craziest part is that this isn’t just science fiction. Those calculations all check out. That’s exactly how it would happen in real life. So in essence, the crew had traveled 23 years into the future. Now so far, we’ve only explored traveling into the future. Is it possible to travel backwards in time? According to some theories, specific types of motion in space might allow time travel into the past and future, if these geometries and motions were possible. However, that’s a big if. It would require something called a closed timelike curve, or CTC for short. A CTC is a closed loop in space-time which could theoretically allow an object to return to its own past. The science behind time travel to the past,
is incredibly complex and speculative and many scientists suspect that it is not possible at all,
because of the issue of causality. That bring us back to the Grandfather Paradox, if in fact these scientists are correct and assuming traveling to the past would cause a paradox then we have our answer, time travel to the past is impossible. If however, the Novikov Self-Consistency Principle is correct, then there is still a chance. The Novikov Principle states that if an event exists that would cause a paradox or any change to the past whatsoever, then the probability of that event is zero. It would thus be impossible to create time paradoxes. Unfortunately, for any would-be time travelers, the Novikov Principle is not widely accepted. Another possibility would be the existence of wormholes, which are technically permitted by general relativity.
– In order to travel through time using a wormhole, it would have to be what is known as a
Transversable Wormhole. Brace yourself for more strange
space-time shenanigans here. In order to be able to travel through time using a Transversable Wormhole, its creation would have to be in one of two ways. Option one, one end of the wormhole would have to be accelerated to a significant portion of the speed of light, then brought back to the origin point. time dilation would result in an accelerated wormhole entrance aging less than the stationary one as seen by an external observer Option 2 requires one end of the wormhole to be placed within the gravitational field of an object with higher gravity than the other entrrance and then returned to a position near the other entrance This is a difficult concept to grasp So think of it this way, imagine you and I synchronize our watches to both display the year 2000 I hop in my ship and accelerate one entrance to the wormhole to near light speed and then bring it back My watch now reads 2004 And yours reads 2012 If someone were then to enter the accelerated entrance they would now exit the stationary entrance in the year 2004 the same location, but 8 years in their past It’s incredibly complicated stuff But an easier way to look at it is by picturing by a piece of paper This paper represent space time, a wormhole is an area of warped spacetime with an entrance and an exit which you can imagine as the paper being folded back on itself with a hole poked through it essentially you’re simply skipping all the time and distance between the two points The problem with transversable wormholes is that you can’t possibly travel back further than the initial creation of the wormhole So…really it’s more a path through time rather than a device propels itself back and forth through the years at will It could be useful for the people in the distant future wanting to come observe our time but if we created such a portal today we couldn’t use it to go visit the dinosaurs One final method that could potentially allow an individual to more or less travel through time is cryopreservation The branch of science concerned specifically with preserving human is called cryonics and the practice has been around since the late 1960s. Cryonics is on the speculative edge of medicine as its proponents suggest that Death is not a singular event, but a process it would have to be for the practice to be successful because it’s currently illegal for a human to be frozen before they die One a person opted to be cryo-preserved their bodies prepared minutes after official death the theory is that by reducing the patient’s body temperature to around -130 degrees celcius enough brain information will be retained in an accessible state for doctors and scientists of the far future to revive the patient temperatures of that low inevitably cause significant damage to the human body regardless of prior-preservation safeguards so the doctors of today are relying on the development of future technology that will allow the brain to be repaired at the molecular level and restored to functioning condition if someday technology has advanced far enough to revive cryo-preserved humans they will have essentially time traveled to the future it’s not quite as easy as shows like futurama make it seem but it is theoretically possible and that’s time travel in a nutshell you really can move forward through time by traveling at an immense speeds or through cryo-preservation But travel to the past is likely impossible of course the science of quantum physics and time travel is incredibly vast and well beyond the grasp of most normal people so we may be missing just one crucial element to understanding exactly how spacetime works but who knows? maybe someone from the far future will show up in our time and give us the key to unlocking the mystery or…would that cause a paradox as always, I’ve included sources and links for further reading in the description if you enjoy this video please take a moment to subscribe my channel your support helps me keep releasing two videos every week feel free to leave a like or dislike as you please and share your thoughts on time travel in the comments thanks for watching! And I’ll see you in the next video