Articles, Blog

SSD Seminar 3 Improving Reading Efficiency

December 4, 2019

I’m Geri Markel. I’m an educational
psychologist and my focus is on learning and
performance. So in that capacity, I help
students with time management, organization, and
other study skills. And today’s topic is going
to be reading efficiency. And reading efficiency and
effectiveness, is something that is frequently not
taught as a separate category as students increase
in the complexity of the responsibilities
that they have. And so if you
ask many people when is the last time you
had some reading instruction? They say oh sixth
or seventh grade. And so we can imagine the
kinds of pressures that are put on even extraordinarily
bright students, those who are
very competent, but who don’t really
have the strategies and maybe the attitude to
look at effective reading. And so for example
this cartoon is talking about blocking everything out
except the important parts and goes to the idea that
people frequently underline. But we’ll be talking about
that later, but underlining without thinking doesn’t bring
good memory and retention. So we want to have
strategies that ensure that when a student
is finished with an assignment they can
understand it, talk about it, and then retain it so
they can integrate it later with other information. And so the goals of today
are to make students aware and counselors aware of the
kind of strategies that do exist to enhance reading,
comprehension, and retention, and integration with other
sources, maybe multiple sources, and to read, relieve
the stress that comes with inadequate reading
kinds of things. And it’s very important
for students to start looking more deeply
of, at the kinds of things that tend to be barriers. And so we’ve included
a little self check, which looks at what a
student might be experiencing when they’re reading. And so a student or a counselor,
advisor, could use a checklist like this and just see
if they could identify some of the problems. For example, some
students read rapidly, but they don’t remember. Some students read
slowly, but they read so slowly they don’t remember
and they get distracted. Some people can read and
understand, but not remember. And so we want to really
start focusing on the kinds of barriers that exist
and the kinds of strengths that students might have. When we talk about attitude
and perception, we want to look at reading as information
processing so that the words
trigger ideas, concepts, help us understand
the definitions of terms, and later create
a scaffolding so that we can
integrate information from different sources. And frequently, because people
have not looked at reading as a set of specific strategies,
strategies that they can use to self regulate the kinds
of information that they need to read and remember, they
don’t really get, get efficient. So one of the myths is that
you can read everything at the same rate
and in the same way. And as course work
becomes more complex, content areas become
more differentiated, we need to have a set
of strategies that depend on the purpose for
which we’re reading. And so we’re looking at reading
as a basic building block and vocabulary as
a critical variable. And too often people
don’t spend enough time in new fields learning
the jargon, learning the nuances perhaps
of different vocabulary words and without that basic
block of learning, they fail to really
comprehend well. This is an idea slide looking
at a ladder of learning, which is applied to
most parts of learning. And when students
look at this in terms of general academic performance,
reading, note taking, test taking, it helps to
clarify what they need to do for particular situations. For example, these learning
objectives are set up so that the lowest level
revolves around knowledge, which would be some basic
vocabulary, perhaps a map, some calculations,
the very basic building blocks
of knowledge. At the next level,
comprehension, we want students to be able in their own words
to be able to explain a term, a topic, a definition,
a concept. At the next level,
application, the student maybe
has to do a problem. So if you were doing a word
problem that would depend on basic reading,
basic calculations, understanding the difference
between multiplication and division, and then being
able to solve a problem. When you look at
these three levels, we can look at what is
necessary when you’re reading. Do I, am I reading
this first time through for some basic
definitions and main ideas or am I going more in depth
and going to the next level, am I needing to analyze,
am I needing to breakdown the components,
or the next level synthesize, synthesis if I could
say it, synthesis. Am I required to combine a
bunch of topics or concepts so I can do
relationships? At the top is the more creative,
the evaluative type of thinking in which you might do
a critical analysis or create your own design. So when students are looking
at assignments, they might want to look at a chart
like this and decide, am I reading this
perhaps for the first time to get some main
ideas and vocabulary? Can once I do that, can I
describe things in my own words and then how am I going to
apply this to the basic problems and principles that I have to
do for assignments or projects? And so the idea that we
have different strategies, different rates,
depending on what we read, is sometimes a foreign concept
for many, many students. So if for example you were
reading poetry or trying to get through something you
didn’t know anything about, you might slow down
because you were looking at particular critical
keywords, vocabulary, trying to piece together
what the main ideas were. If you’re sort of familiar with
something, you might be moving through the material a
little bit more quickly. If you were reading a James
Bond book or some kind of novel where you knew the characters,
understood the style, then you would ratchet it
up a little more quickly, perhaps if the book was boring
skipping over some boring parts, and then over
350 words a minutes where you’re rapidly
locating information. Your eyes don’t move
probably more quickly than 600 words a minute from
the old studies that we did in rate of eye movement. And you might be doing that when
you’re looking at a glossary, an index, a table of
contents, a telephone book, a series of tables, where you
really know what you’re looking for and you’re really sort
of scanning and you have in your mind an idea
of what you’re doing. So looking at this and combining
it with the levels of learning, students begin to see how they
can modulate what they’re doing and how they’re doing it. Another kind of thing
that helps students is to begin analyzing
what a text is like. Is this is a text that’s
probably just listing terms and it’s really quite
scientific or specific? Is it a text that’s describing
a con, a concept or a topic, and it has lots of increasingly
detailed information? Is it a passage
or a chapter that’s doing contrast
or pro/con? Is it looking at
cause and effect? Is it looking at sequence? Frequently, when you ask
students how you read something, they say oh, well I open
the book and I start to read. They don’t do anything to look
at what kind of text it is and then adjust the kind
of strategy they might use. Sometimes students begin
to do this spontaneously, but depending on one’s
personality and style you, you might be used to reading
everything, learning everything, being able to memorize
everything in a book, but not really being
able to integrate it. And at the undergrad
level, by the time one gets to their major area
or the graduate level, the mass of information
that needs to be read has to be handled with a
little bit more finesse. Students frequently
again spontaneously, but maybe unconsciously
because they are so familiar with the language, begin to look
for keywords and signal words. One way of making
reading more effective is to become increasingly aware of
the signal words and be looking at sentences when you
read in terms of clauses and where does particular
kinds of words come, come in. So if it was perhaps a
pro/con and an argument, the student would be looking
for words like ‘although’, ‘however’, ‘on the other hand.’ And it doesn’t take much
practice for students to begin to look for these
kinds of words. They can practice in newspapers,
they can practice in magazines, and they can also practice
in the kinds of articles. But this is a separate
kind of activity. It’s one where you are trying
to analyze what the text and what the
writing style is. And this becomes
particularly important when students are reading
multiple kinds of articles. When you used to
have a textbook, you would have a
traditional organization. You might have lots of bold
headings and separations of chapters or topics. That’s not necessarily true in
some of the research articles or literature that students
are reading and so they have to have this internal
framework or structure upon which to build
their comprehension. One of the tried and true
strategies is called the SQ4R method. It’s a method of thinking
and processing information, first talked about
by Robinson in the ’40s and then embellished upon by
Don Smith in the ’50s and ’60s, and it talks about using
multiple modalities in going through a reading, passage,
textbook, or taking notes, or studying for tests, using the
same strategy for multiple uses and emphasizing one or two of the steps depending
on what’s going on. So at the first
level, you want to survey what it is
you’re going to read and what the purpose
is for reading. Is it for review? It is for new knowledge? It is for collecting more
detailed information? The next reason is that
when you’re using different modalities at the simplest
level, if you are looking at something one part of your
brain is sort of lighting up and active, if you’re
writing, another part, and the more activity you have, you seem to reinforce the
integration of knowledge and the awareness and
the discrimination of various kinds of ideas. And so what we’re looking
at is not just a reader who is efficient
reading one source, but at the more
sophisticated level, a reader who can
integrate information from multiple sources and
be, do some critical analysis and then application
of the information to new kinds of problems. The steps in the SQ4R are first
to survey, to look at a chapter or a book or an article, to
see what the components are, perhaps see if you can
identify the main idea. The next step would
be asking questions. And the kind of questions you
ask can be at the grossest level such as who, what, why,
where, when, or it can depend on what the assignment
is and the focus that lectures have taken. And so frequently a student
might have 200 pages to read, the lecture or the PowerPoint
notes that are given ahead, only focus on one-third
of the chapter. If a student is pressed
for time, a slow reader, inefficient reader, hates
reading, then they might focus on the aspects that are covered
in the text that will be covered in the lecture and just
cutdown on the amount. So surveying and questioning
provide an avenue in a way to
approach reading. The next step in reading is
a very specific, targeted, interactive process, so that
you have a question in mind and you are seeking and
searching information that answers the question. The next part is
that you’re reciting. Perhaps the material
is so difficult that when you’re actually
reading it you sort of talk it out to yourself as it’s, as
if it’s a foreign language, because you’re not really
clear about the terms. The next part would be to
say it in your own words. If you can’t say it or do the
next step, write it in terms of writing keywords or diagrams,
if you can’t say it, write it, draw it, you don’t know it, and you’re certainly not
going to remember it. So the important part is to really have a step-by-step
procedure, which guides you into learning and
processing the information so it can be understood and
retained and then later applied. And then the next step is a
step that’s frequently forgot. Read it and forget it. I read it. Put it away. But the idea that you’re working
in short-term or working memory when you’re actually
reading something and perhaps writing it, means
that when you put it away after an hour or a day you
take out a blank piece of paper and see if you can write
the notes from memory. See what you remember and
then go back and fill it in. That way you’re not just
reading and reading, which tends to be boring and
not particularly productive. So if we look in depth
at what a survey does, it’s sometimes looked
at as a waste of time. I don’t have time! I just got to get into it! I just got to get into it! Well, what happens is
you’ve really going over it. You’re really not
understanding it. And the survey ensures
that you really understand what the whole picture is. A perfect example of
this in that, in some, in some courses a student
will get an article that describes a study. Their assignment is to look
at how the study was done, the parts of the study. It wasn’t necessarily
to understand the concepts of the study and
what the study proved. Now if you don’t understand that
you might with lack of knowledge about the content be
struggling through this to understand what the content
was rather than looking at the methodology, the
reliability, the validity, and the kind of
sampling they used. And so another thing that the
survey does is help a student identify the useful reading
aids that might be attached to a textbook or a
particular resource. And too frequently, especially
naïve students, maybe students who are great listeners
who didn’t really have to do too much reading to get
the good grades, forget to look at these illustrations
and pictures and graphs and diagrams. And for many people, especially
those who are visual learners and don’t like reading or
don’t want to take the time, they can benefit
greatly in a survey by knowing what pictures are
there, because usually pictures, illustrations, reflect
the main points of a chapter or an article. And so just by looking
at that, people begin to become much
more aware of what the critical
aspects of the material is. Then, we want to
arouse our curiosity. We want to look at
previous knowledge. We just don’t want to get stuff
coming in as a blank slate. The more you question,
the more curious, the better your questions are,
and are aligned to what you have to learn, the better
your reading will be. So even if you take 10 or 15
minutes to survey and 5 minutes to get good questions, you
will make up that time by being a more efficient reader. Now where to the
questions come from? First, they come
from the syllabus. So usually, every class
session has a name. Turn that name
into a question. The title of an article,
turn it into a question. Any of the bold headings,
turn them into questions. Look at the last lecture,
turn into questions about how does the last lecture
reflect upon the next lecture, so you get some
integration. And then again you want to ask
what illustrations are there, are any of these
provided ahead of time in the, in
the PowerPoint. If there’s a problem with
somebody raising questions, that’s the perfect
kind of thing to talk to at office hours
or after class. So we’re always talking
about reaching out and going to experts if you
just have barriers in reading or
you hate books. Oh, don’t give me that
it’s, it’s too thick, it’s too wide,
the print’s no good. And I think one of
the difficulties occurs when you’re talking about
surveying and questioning, when the material is on a
computer and you’re scrolling up and down, it’s very difficult to
keep a focus on the whole thing. So you’re scrolling up and
down, scrolling up and down. Sometimes you can
see a couple of pages at once on your computer. Sometimes you can
refer to the book, but looking at the big picture
prior to reading is critical and many of the
things that are on the computer preclude
anybody even thinking about looking at
the whole thing. Then when you’re reading,
one of the critical things that happens
is the ability to paraphrase what
it is you’re reading. You don’t necessarily do that with every sentence
or paragraph. But you, if textbooks are
written in a certain way, it’s usually that the main
idea opens a paragraph, and the first paragraph
or second paragraph of the section contains the
most important information with more detailed information. So if you’re going to read
and paraphrase, you might look at the bold heading
of a section, turn it into a question, see if there are any critical
definitions that you have to look for, and then read the
first and second paragraph, and then stop, take a minute,
paraphrase what you’re saying. Can I say it? Even using really brief
short-term memory am I integrating this, because if
I can’t, then I have to go back and say do I understand
the definition. Is there a concept that
I have to go back to so that I can learn
something new? Another key aspect of
reading uses visualization. So that old phrase ‘one picture
is worth a thousand words’ is really true in this situation. So for many people they’re
just using their verbal skills without any visualization
or imagery. They’re not using one
part of their brain. So even if you ratchet up just
a little bit by evoking a graph, evoking a chart,
writing a chart, seeing if you can visualize
a sequence, a process, then you are enhancing
your memory and your capacity to retain. Reciting is this, is, is making
sure that you get it more into your memory bank
and using these pictures. The next thing would be
to write things down. I’m not talking about
reading and being a scribe, because many students feel
that if I just write it down I sort of, I learn by writing. I learn by writing. Well, what’s happening
is, my silly analogy is that your eyes are seeing some
information, goes to your eye, and what happens is that
information just dribbles down your neck, [Audience
laughing] out your arm, out of the pen,
and onto the page, and it never touches
that grey matter. However, if you have an image
of it or you say it to yourself and you write after
you read and understand, you then can check back
to see how accurate you are. So it’s okay
to write notes. It’s okay to outline. It’s okay to highlight or
underline, but you only do it after you have said it
yourself in your own words. If it’s important
enough to underline, it’s important enough
to say to yourself. Another thing that
you do when you write is to write a test question that
might reflect the information. So for many students taking
multiple choice tests is very difficult. And so if at the end,
and we’ll talk about this when we do note taking, if at
the end of what you’re reading, if you see things
that are alike and only have one subtle
difference, you might make up an objective question. If you see a big idea that’s
in contrast to another big idea from another lecture, make up a
compare and contrast question. And by doing that
on an ongoing basis, you ensure that you’re ready
for that application part, you’re not only doing
the reading, the knowledge and the comprehension. And the last thing
is that review. Now we know that for many, many decades students had
been told review your notes. One, they don’t do it. Two, if they do it, it’s
right before the test. And three, if they do it, they
just read and reread and reread, and by some miracle of osmosis
it’s going to be in their brain. If you’re visual
and if you’re smart and have a great memory,
sometimes that works. However, when it comes to
reviewing, the critical thing is to test yourself
and learn as you go. So if you’re reading to process
information, then you have to stop, see if you can
say it out loud, write it, do that diagram again, maybe
an hour after, a day after, or at least every single week. So if you’re going to read and
learn and understand and retain, and then integrate and apply,
it means that you have to do periodic review. Reviewing notes or
reviewing the reading, preferably doing some
previewing before a lecture, and then after the lecture
seeing if you can read and review the lecture, and then
doing it, making test questions and seeing if you can
write it from memory. For many students,
there’s a need for learning technical
vocabulary, and again it’s really advisable
to use a multimodal approach. So one of the things you might
do is learn one word at a time. Of course, writing it. But that visualization,
humor in trying to memorize it, and then the next thing is
taking another technical term and saying what is a term
that’s like this but different, because those are the kinds of
issues that crop up on tests. Are there words that sort of,
are spelled similar, similarly, do they have the same
prefix, are they used in a different kind of context. So it’s not just
memorizing a list of words, it’s memorizing words
in context. If students were
studying for the GRE or learning particular
vocabulary in the humanities or other fields, what
you want to do is you want to learn one word and then
identify a number of synonyms for that word, so you begin
to get shades of meaning. And then get two or three
words that are antonyms. That way for one word, you’re
getting a family of words and a way to become more
precise when you’re writing or when you’re reading, you
become a lot more sensitive. And then of course,
quizzing yourself. Learning is correct
spelling, how boring. Wish we didn’t
have to do it. But the more technical and the
more complex the vocabulary, the more important the
spelling is, and especially in PowerPoint presentations, so many students
have to do projects. Sometimes just spell check
isn’t enough, as we all know, but often students are rushed,
even faculty are rushed, and we get some very
embarrassing words that get through the, get
through the spell check, but don’t look very good. And that’s especially
true in writing, so when you’re writing
tests you want to make sure that at least most of the
vocabulary is spelled well. Okay, so how do you manage
this reading process? We got some strategies. You want to use SQ4R. [Audience member coughing] What do you actually do
to get yourself revved up to be efficient when
you are reading? One of the things is not to
think that a person is going to read for two or three hours
straight some complex test, text. It’s not going to happen. And if it does, it’s for
most people it’s usually not efficient. So the critical thing is
to set some small goal, maybe you can read
for 20 to 40 minutes. Interspersed with, in that time
you’re writing, you’re talking, you’re interacting, you’re
not just [Slurs words]. You get so tired that
you can’t remember. Another thing is
to set a strategy. Is this a place where you
just have to scan to look at what’s going on, you have
to pick up some details? Is this a place where you
have to do some deep reading, because you don’t
understand the content? Is this where you need main
ideas or is this a time where you have to get
examples and specific details? And then what are the positive
conditions that you need to use or create for yourself? If you are a student who really
needs quiet, then you need to go and be in a place
that’s quiet. You might have to
have some white noise. If you’re able to study in
a room, but it’s too quiet, you might want to put on a fan. For some students,
classical music works. If students want to
know should I use music, should I have other things
on, all you have to do is set up two different
conditions. Condition one is what’s thought
as the optimal, non-distracting, quiet situation, and
then go in a coffee shop where it’s noisy
and see which works. For some students, it’s easier
to read in a coffee shop if they’re reading
humanities. But if they’re doing math or
science, they have to be quiet. So as the course work
becomes more complex, it’s more important
for students to understand what
are the conditions that are going to
be most helpful. In addition, because we’re
so frantic and harried, it’s more important
before you start to read to just take a
minute to relax. Just spend a few minutes
breathing deeply, in, out, get a visual image
that’s positive, and then set a small goal. Perhaps you’re a person who is
just has do a little warm up, maybe you want to review
what you read before just to get
you going, okay. But we can’t think of
running and rushing, and then I [Inaudible]. That usually does
not contribute. Okay, and then doing the
reading you are focused. You’re not answering
the phone. You’re not looking
at the Internet. You’re not perhaps
even eating, okay. You want to be focused. So you want to think of
yourself as a sprinter. Ask a question, find the answer,
think about it, take two minutes of a break, find
another question, okay. Relate, okay. Whatever you know of a strategy
that works for athletics or music or dance
performance, works for studying. Okay? So even if there’s hours
of practice, there’s breaks, there’s mass practice. So it may be that
for some portion of time you’re just
looking for main ideas, and then you’re looking for
evidence for the main ideas, and then you’re looking for some
details, and then you’re looking for some examples, and
then you’re looking for some comparisons. So when you mass
practice this, you begin to get more control. Strategies give you control. Control gives you efficiency. Efficiency gives you lower
stress and greater motivation. So you have a nice
cycle that goes. And so taking breaks, not
two hour breaks, but five or ten minutes breaks, and
the breaks mean you stand, you walk around, you get
a healthy drink or snack, you stretch, maybe listen to
music, hear something humorous. You want to get your
mind in a relaxed state. It doesn’t necessarily
mean checking Facebook, looking at the Internet, because
you’re still focusing those eyes when you’re doing that, and we want to give your
body, your mind, a break. After reading,
you have to think. I know this is a
foreign concept. But we want reading
to reflect thinking. If there is no thinking in
reading, there’s no learning. So we want to really be
able to sit down and review in our head what we read,
why it was important. Can I write a summary
in my own words? Can I make up a self-quiz
and what is the goal for the next assignment? Many people never really
learn to read quickly enough. There’s, although they may
be bright and competent, they’re stuck at the
word-by-word level. Sometimes it’s just
reading, sometimes it’s fear of missing something,
sometimes you always did it that way and it’s fine. And so you may need to
have some exercises not with your schoolwork, but
to practice reading rapidly with a newspaper or a magazine. And so frequently I ask people
to just take the front page of a newspaper, turn the title
of the article, the headline into a question, and then
just read for a minute to see if they can pick out who,
what, why, where, when. Do that with magazines,
articles, you can do it with blogs, they’re a
little bit more difficult. But wherever the
information is really stable, so a newspaper is required to
say who, what, why, where, when, and the vocabulary is usually
one in which you, you’re aware of and also the concepts
are not very difficult. And in addition, you have
some background information. So when you’re reading
the newspaper or a magazine, you might be looking at what
information don’t I have, what is new that I need to
put, put in my memory bank? If you’re asking a question,
you can say do I know anything about it? And then
read for a minute. So that kind of thing helps
just with one minute reading. For 10 or 15 minutes,
take a book that you like and that you’re interested in,
and read for 10 or 20 minutes and keep a graph of
how many pages you read, trying to increase your rate as you understand
the author’s style, the character development,
the information. The more familiar you
are with the information, the more rapidly
you can read it, because you have
information in your head. The words just trigger a
remembrance of the information or a question that
you need to answer. So reading again is interactive
and looking for information, processing the information. And also I think it’s
very useful and helpful in social interactions just to
do some of this with a friend, just meet for 15 minutes,
each reading you know one or two paper articles and then
summarize them to each other, because frequently when
we talk about doing things for one minute or two
minutes, it seems so inane that we don’t do it,
but really it helps. And for many people,
talking information out with another people is a
primary way of learning. So reviewing textbook
summaries is critical. We’ve talked about using
visualization and so when you’re looking at an
image you’re more focused. You can look at one part at
time, you know for many science, PowerPoint presentations
the visuals are very complex. It might be that the
person preparing the plot, slide has studied
this for 20 years. And this slide is so laden
with information that it has to be looked at in sections. So for some visual images,
it’s necessary to print them out in a large size, perhaps
fold them or cut them so you only look at
one part at a time, then see if you can make
a reproduction of it. Compare, so the real learning
comes from looking at things and seeing what you
know and you don’t know. The use of visuals really
increases retention and memory. If you’re in a test, if you can
evoke an image, a flowchart, you can more easily
set things down. If you have a blue book,
if you have a visual in mind, you can open the blue book,
put down what you remember in the forms of a chart or some
kind of visual, and then refer to it as you’re writing
your essay questions. Therefore, the visual
helps you organize and get more clarity
into your answers. So here’s just a few simple
visuals that can be used to help you with your reading. So if you know you’re
reading something that has a pro/con argument,
you can set these up and just do the bullet points
and it brings a clarity and a purpose
to your readings, so that you feel
more comfortable. The cause and effect is
caused a fishbone diagram, came from the quality work
within the auto industry, because it might be
that you had an effect, you assumed there was a
certain cause, you went to solve that problem, but it
wasn’t the root cause. So for many students in
difficult complex situations, if you can list all the causes
for a particular effect, then you can go through
the notes and say what, how could I prioritize these, or if I have a cause that’s
political, can I then talk about the three options
that were political. So these kinds of things allow
you to consolidate information and provide a framework that helps you process
the information. So in terms of a roadmap
to efficient reading, we want to preview and plan,
that’s a strategy to get you to be more efficient, more
effective, lower stress and increase, increase control. So you want to know what
information do I need? What is the assignment?
How is the information going to be used? Under what
conditions is the information going to be used? It’s really a different thing if you’re moving
toward multiple choice, moving toward giving a
presentation or a project, or taking an essay test. So in summarizing to look
to improve comprehension, you want to look at
interaction, your mind and questioning what
you’re reading, understanding the purpose,
understanding the depth of information that
you need, paraphrasing it in your own words,
perhaps writing it out, and then comparing it with
the lecture or the reading that you’ve done, and
summarizing using charts. One of the things to do is
that if you make a chart, then two or three days later you
take a blank piece of paper, this is called the
blank page exercise. You take a blank piece of paper
and you try to recreate it. And it’s such
a funny thing. There’s so many blank
holes that you’ll find. And that’s where the real
learning and retention comes. And I, I saw this with several
medical students who made, read and made wonderful charts
and bring in the charts say, well I summarized
the chapter. Really? Did you
do this from memory? Oh no, I wanted it
to be accurate. So there was a chart in
the book and they wrote it. Oh, that’s a great idea. Did you then
test yourself? Uh, well I didn’t
have time. Okay. Here’s a whiteboard
or here’s a blank piece of paper,
recreate the chart. And it’s very interesting that
as you try to recreate it, you are able to put
more and more detail in. So what happens is you really
are creating information from the core out. You learn the main ideas,
get some further explanation, get some details,
get some examples. And then to improve retention,
again you’re going to summarize, visualize, use charts,
talk to other people, write practice questions,
and review. So if you’re a student who
wants to become more efficient, you could identify one goal
and practice that one goal. It might be that you want to just practice reading
faster other kinds of material because it’s too stressful
to try and change anything with your course work. I’m just going to read
newspapers and magazines. If you need help with, if you think you have a reading
problem, you might want to go to Services for Students
with Disabilities. If somebody is looking at
your writing and it doesn’t, your writing doesn’t
reflect adequate reading and information processing, you
might want to go to Sweetland. So there are many
places on campus. If you’re very nervous
when you read, you seem to be having blockage
because of stress or anxiety, depression or whatever, you
might then want to go to CAPS. And so you might decide I’m
just in one course where I tend to be missing the main idea, I’m
going to look at the chapters and use SQ4R and I’m just going
to use it to survey and preview and write questions
so I’m better ready when the lecture comes. That one step might
be your avenue to better reading efficiency. So that’s it for
reading efficiency. I hope this helped you. I have a study tips program. It’s called “A Study Tip
A Day Gets You an A”, 365 secrets of study success. It’s a free download. Each study tip is a
140 characters or less. So look under study
tips for iPhone, soon to be for Droids too. And the name of my company
is Managing Mind located on State Street. My email is
[email protected], and I’m open for
questions or concerns. Thank you very much.

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