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Solving the Impossible in Quantum Field Theory | Space Time

November 21, 2019

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  • Reply Thomas Doyle May 17, 2018 at 11:55 pm

    Is self energy how an electron can be a muon. and is that also true for Tau.

  • Reply Shuey272 May 23, 2018 at 11:23 pm

    so the simplest case in an electron scattering event is mainly from the one photon transferr situation but how much does that contribute? cause it sounded like it only contributed a percent of the propability

  • Reply Diana Gibbs May 24, 2018 at 10:04 pm

    I hope you guys re-issue the glasses in 2024…

  • Reply Otterpus May 27, 2018 at 3:16 am

    An annoyingly loud intro and 4 minutes of ads at the end? jfc
    Oh well, the video is pretty good.

  • Reply Kaushal Timilsina May 29, 2018 at 9:03 am

    When a photon exchanged during an electron pair scattering produces particle- anti-particle pair, the pair lasts for “some” time before annihilating. If they are going to last for some time, they could not move in the same directions in space or they would not separte and hence not last for a certain defined time. But if they diverge and have to converge again, a certain kind of force or interaction should be acting or the gemometry of their path of travel should agree with the the diverging and converging (by the influnece of some other field.

    Now this is related. A non-random behaviour of a particle in a system is when its interaction agrees with the behaviour of the system. When a particle inside a system interacts or behaves in such a way that it does not agree on the properties of the system, the behaviour of the particle can be called random. Eg: A series of 4 particles in a sytem are such that their kinetic energy configures as 10 degrees celcius, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees (the particles are in one dimensional arrangement according to their order of listing) . Considering the 20 degrees particle, its energy flows towards it from the 30 degree particle through it towards the ten degrees celsius. But if the 20 degree particle acts as isolated from the 3 other particles rather as a separate system relative to the system consisting of the other 3 partciles (which to the system of 20 degree particle acts as a system with energy configuration of 27 degrees (plausible), energy will now flow from the system of three particles toward the isolated system of 20 degree particle.

    So when one (actually both from each’s perspective) of the particle pair acts a separate system to the remaining system, a potential energy to interact with the rest of the system converges the two to annihilate again. If it’s confirmable that such a particle-antiparticle pair can not be extracted from electron pair scattering in a time interval greater than 1 planck time, the property randomness can be defined and extrapolated: interactions below the planck scales are random because below the planck scales, an element acts as a system isolated from the rest of its neighbourhood (rest of the universe) and interacts as per some form of energy potential of the rest of the universe. Elements acting in such way below the planck scales can be used to define maximum energy density of a planck unit.

    Could this make sense?

  • Reply Ronald de Rooij June 1, 2018 at 10:52 pm

    As it is presented here, I could have done this. Just say: Ah, everything is possible! Oh, that results in infinities? Well, just measure what is, and skip that from your formula's and it will work out…. I know it must have more to say, but from this episode I would have said to Feynmann: Go and find another job, you clearly are uncapable of being a theoretical phycisist.

  • Reply Rick Harper June 9, 2018 at 7:23 am

    When your that guy who starts watching documentaries at age 5 about space and moves onto quantum physics by age 12

  • Reply Jay W June 14, 2018 at 2:53 am

    I don't get the jump from the field of electrons interacting through the virtual photons. Is that just a term used to describe a quantity of energy or degree of change between the electron states going in and coming out, or are they somehow using the photon field to change the vibration in their field?

  • Reply David Wilkie June 14, 2018 at 1:16 pm

    "All infinite integral events".., are happening, as this solid instantaneous sum of all history.., the space of universal constants containing the potential possibly locus-location.., of all probability according to the inherent relative-math possibilities of liquid-change-now, QM-Time.

    This presentation is well done in the nomenclature for the purpose of physics communication. Mine is not, ..still a matter of converting images back into the generating quantum function/operations.
    So IMO RF used Wheeler's one electron in the universe idea as the basis of the drawings, consciously or not, and the frequencies-amplitudes time connection is the general context. This nomenclature review is a job for actual Physicists who understand that Feynman Diagrams are symbolic representations of infinity.

  • Reply aegideus June 30, 2018 at 2:42 pm

    This actually sounds a lot like how we solve equations in chemistry. In any chemical reaction, there are a number of different things actually happening, but the more complex an interaction, the less it contributes to the total character of the system, so we ignore all but the few simplest interactions that contribute the most to the outcome.

  • Reply White Night July 1, 2018 at 1:16 pm

    Do you need Low or High radiation ,To Deform A particle ?

  • Reply White Night July 1, 2018 at 1:32 pm

    Why not be The First to Tell people There's No Up Or Down.Or Gravity ,just Centrifugal Force " everything's a Lie !

  • Reply Francis Tremblay July 3, 2018 at 11:15 pm

    Why can we create a devise that probe beyond the obvervable universe using superposition of matter and entanglement?

  • Reply sumsar01 July 10, 2018 at 1:31 pm

    Just taylor approximate the shit out of it and throw away the things you don't like.

  • Reply MtnTow July 11, 2018 at 2:13 am

    Its a math/logic map. Im kinda surprised it is considered all that special.

  • Reply натараян физика July 15, 2018 at 1:15 pm


  • Reply Leandro Gomes July 18, 2018 at 7:18 pm

    At 7:00 – it was said, "each new vertex reduces its contribution by a factor of about 100". From where this "100" comes from?

  • Reply Daniel Izzo July 28, 2018 at 2:19 pm

    The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe
    When the Universe started to fall . When did Motion Start ?
    (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein;
    (2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation background at 3 kelvin,
    (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
    interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
    instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time,

    wherein; static gravitational field (1) began to go into "motion".

    Therefore; the interaction of (2) motionless / static gravity vacuum fields, could eventually create dust particles in the Universe that later form into stars, galaxies , planets, moons and other objects in or about their current locations.

    When did motion first start ?

    Science knows the formation of matter in our universe was caused by the forces of the


    These forces are:

    (1) The Force of Gravity

    (2) The Force of Electro Magnetism

    (3) The Strong Nuclear Force

    (4) The Weak Nuclear Force

    At some point in time, motion within the universe, had to begin.
    The paradox would be, what force could cause motion to begin, without moving in its
    present space-time ?

    The Gravitational Cosmological Theory was
    developed from an is rooted in the Einstein Steady State Theory and the Bondi-Gold-Hoyle Steady State Theory,

    Wherein the Steady State Theory the universe,
    contains more protons than electrons that
    create dust particles and
    galaxies formed in their current locations and the cosmic
    matter is recycled therein at the center of the galaxy furnace.
    When the Universe started to fall:
    The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe.
    The Theory:
    (1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein;
    (2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation background at 3 kelvin,
    (3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
    interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
    instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time, wherein; static gravitational
    field (1) began to go into "motion".

    Therefore; the interaction of (2) motionless / static gravity vacuum fields, could eventually create dust particles in the Universe that later form into stars, galaxies , planets, moons and other objects in or about their current locations.

    Q: When did this motion start?
    A: If a neutral particle is able to resist the universal motion, in theory, that particle
    would go back in time. Going back in time the neutral particle would then enter into (1)
    of the (2) motionless-static gravity vacuum fields void of motion, and cause an unbalance
    and gravitational instability and this interaction would create motion and energy
    Q: What causes a gravitational static vacuum field in the first place ?
    A: Pressure force is used to create a vacuum on Earth, perhaps an exotic something
    100,000 times weaker than the force of gravity decays, causing a static-motionless gravity vacuum field.

    Q: What created the motionless gravity vacuum fields in the first place ?

    A: Vacuums are created by pressure so the only answer I can think of is a created vacuum pressure from the future to start motion in the past.

    ( DRI 2002, the theory needs improvement – help yourself )

  • Reply White Night July 29, 2018 at 6:37 pm

    The universe is out of sync with Man,I know why ,Keep fighting well get there !

  • Reply manasi parulekar August 5, 2018 at 3:43 pm

    why does quantum field be almost impossible for all scientist?

  • Reply myantispambox August 6, 2018 at 5:11 pm

    But what is a quantum field made of?

  • Reply SNBeast August 10, 2018 at 12:44 pm

    9:11 Sounds like the problem that lead to quantum mechanics!

  • Reply Karsten T August 11, 2018 at 6:47 pm

    Matt, you have the best tone, mood, wording,and rhythm for explaining these things I have heard up until now, Thank you (~8

  • Reply Jeff Groves August 17, 2018 at 12:19 am

    Feynman. I wish I had met him.

  • Reply enlong chiou August 17, 2018 at 6:28 am

    Feynman integral of all possible path add up equal to vacuum energy at every scale E*L=c*h=299792458*6.626*10^-34=118*(1.67*10^-27)=(4.9)^3 time proton's mass,E=ch/L=chR=13.6 ev, R=1/L=1/(4*3.14*137*5.3*10^-11), as sum zero of zeta function which only one prime number(p) difference at p^2 take as A^2 (A is amplitude of probability wave), both it's sum is 1.

  • Reply Lukáš Kubej August 18, 2018 at 4:27 pm

    Why particles shown as oscillations in a field are always one-dimensional, rather then two-dimensional?

  • Reply Ryan Franks August 19, 2018 at 12:00 pm

    String theory = inventing extra dimensions(Gods) to make your math work.

  • Reply Lawrence Shuda August 26, 2018 at 3:20 am


  • Reply Douglas Dorman August 28, 2018 at 5:35 pm

    Thank you Family I love you too that is beautiful, peace and love, Doug:)<3. PS You are researching in the right direction.

  • Reply Yury Euceda August 29, 2018 at 3:43 pm

    I got addicted to your videos. They and you are great. Thanks Professor

  • Reply Ben Booth September 1, 2018 at 10:26 am

    I thought photon energies were limited from being arbitrarily large by the fact that the smallest wavelength possible is the Planck length. energy = Planck's constant * frequency, speed of photon = frequency * wavelength, speed of light is constant so if the frequency (energy) increases the wavelength decreases, so the highest energy photon possible has a wavelength of a Planck length. Is that incorrect?

  • Reply benjamin estrada September 1, 2018 at 10:51 pm

    do the vertex ineractions affect the photon diffraction patterns?

  • Reply Uncle Rick September 8, 2018 at 11:22 am

    The whole "self-energy" problem (maybe relating to quantum gravity) had my head spinning. I can never get enough of theoretical physics, but I'm just going to go to bed.

  • Reply Michael Michael Motorcycle October 2, 2018 at 5:05 pm

    I’d love to meet the designer of this system.

  • Reply Michsel Holiday October 3, 2018 at 3:25 am

    The secret is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle but elaborating further on that the particles of measurement also along with its energy it's borrowed from the future and it's like moving through a soup of these particles and using 1 using using one only once we going to the next one

  • Reply Michsel Holiday October 3, 2018 at 3:25 am

    The secret is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle but elaborating further on that the particles of measurement also along with its energy it's borrowed from the future and it's like moving through a soup of these particles and using 1 using using one only once we going to the next one

  • Reply Michsel Holiday October 3, 2018 at 3:25 am

    The secret is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle but elaborating further on that the particles of measurement also along with its energy it's borrowed from the future and it's like moving through a soup of these particles and using 1 using using one only once we going to the next one

  • Reply Aditya Das. Mr.COSMOS October 7, 2018 at 5:30 pm

    Very nice

  • Reply Mekratrig October 24, 2018 at 4:45 am

    Why would a virtual photong come into existence between an approaching pair of particles? What governs the origin point of such. Can virtual particles be something other than photons?

  • Reply Q&science October 27, 2018 at 3:35 pm

    I got rather confused at the beginning when you talked about the exchange of one virtual photon between the two electrons. There are two electrons which cause two excitations in the electron field, therefore shouldn't they cause two excitations in the electromagnetic field, which means that the pair of electrons would exchange not one, but two virtual photons in one repulsion?
    Would really appreciate it if someone can answer this. My head hurts.

  • Reply James Elger October 29, 2018 at 3:43 am

    Ha ha ha! What happened to Lambda!?

  • Reply Poes Law October 31, 2018 at 11:56 am

    Electron go in and electron go out, you can't explain that without QED

  • Reply douchebag patrol November 10, 2018 at 11:57 am

    wish u could just use perturbation theory in exams to justify ur answer lol
    near enuf is good enuf 😀

  • Reply Tabulanis Morris November 22, 2018 at 9:01 pm

    I would like to say thanks PBS spacetime. You guys are on it. I wanted to request something.
    I have seen a lot of lectures and salons about the many worlds interpretation and how it works. They seem to always say "Then the universe splits in two." This seems really counter to the idea. I always thought it was always many worlds. No plitting needed. In fact the case for the many is already there I think. One has to remove worlds to make a "split" If it's all quantum, then wouldn't it be more about wich worlds one "sees" and not what world is created? That way it can all be quantum just not all observable. I get that some folks think this is useless as it can't be proven, but I think it's important to show that observation shows us some possible particular state of the universe, not THE state of The Universe. Like, say all quantum systems in the whole are in superposition but connected through likelihood. Maybe even entanglement. I don't think it's useless just misunderstood.

    I mean what if you can only "see" one chunk of time and no others. Just your chunk. Your chunk is a lifetime long and as big as all that you see in that time.

    Like if you take the whole city of New York and every possible thing in a day that can be observed without any filter. You have nonsense. Just random junk everywhere. Add a video camera and we limit our perspective. Now we see objects interacting though time. That's how it seems to me. I would love to see a more indepth look at these ideas. We can't prove what happens inside a black hole but we still try, and that work has been very revealing.

  • Reply Mr. Lee November 25, 2018 at 7:44 am

    This is a beautiful person.

  • Reply MetraMan09 December 23, 2018 at 2:41 am

    The electrons don't bounce off each other, they actually just pass through each other like waves but 4-dimensional wave crests smack into each other and affect their source waves. The math works out.
    9:30 The math works out if you calculate mass(time). Yes, infinite kinetic mass energies are possible but they last for so little time that they average out to the known electron kinetic mass. It is actually why an electron increases in mass as it goes faster and faster: the electron's time dilation makes the infinite kinetic mass last longer from our pov and thereby creating relativistic mass.

  • Reply Abhi Abhi December 24, 2018 at 1:42 am

    Why should light should travel why can't it be in one place

  • Reply Ilya Kostolomov December 24, 2018 at 8:19 pm

    Damn, physics Jesus knows his shit

  • Reply That Should Work December 26, 2018 at 8:24 am

    maybe there is a static underlying field, that particles interact with as we hurdle through space

  • Reply DJ Toddles December 31, 2018 at 4:46 pm

    9:00 I wonder if electrons have a weight watchers program for dealing with their infinite mass

  • Reply Arby January 4, 2019 at 2:13 pm

    What if you impossed the rule that the total energy of a particular Feynman interaction is constant. Hence the sum of an electrons self energy plus it's remaining mass must be constant. I don't know what forces govern an electron to emit and re-absorb a photon with, say, an energy equivalent to half it's mass, but I think it's safe to assume that it doesn't happen very often (otherwise electrons would give off heaps of UV light). So this a wild guess, but could the relationship between the sum of the self energy be explained by an inverse probability relation (i.e. 1 – (photon energy)/(total energy of electron))?

  • Reply David Hand January 4, 2019 at 7:50 pm

    Hypothesis: In a universe containing nothing but one electron, the mass of that electron is infinite. The absorption of many of those photons by other particles is what limits the mass to a finite number.

    Shoot me down.

  • Reply John von Horn January 7, 2019 at 8:20 pm

    The dude reminds me of Jesus

  • Reply Anarchy January 19, 2019 at 5:16 am

    Not sure how I got here to this video but I'm glad i did

  • Reply Shawn Elliott February 6, 2019 at 7:37 am

    I have a question. How can I calculate my own (approximate) mass in electron-volts? Assume I'm at-rest, because that's the truth — I'm sitting on my ass watching YouTube.

  • Reply SWAYAM G. February 13, 2019 at 11:42 pm

    What about PROTONS, u only talked about ELECTRONS

  • Reply Alex Gregor March 24, 2019 at 5:45 am

    Again this guy!
    Can't watch this

  • Reply Ben March 27, 2019 at 12:35 am

    I guess you can say he was a fine man?

  • Reply Christian Vulpescu March 30, 2019 at 8:10 am

    Referring to the QFT: They tried to proof the Plank units in space by measuring the crispness of light from verry distant objects and the pictures were to crisp.
    Could it be, that the photons don't have to pass the real Plank units in space but could travel as field exitationes – so to say: under the radar- to us and materialize in our telescopes?

  • Reply TheHorizonTries March 30, 2019 at 11:15 am

    So smug when he ends EVERY EPISODE by working in the last words "space-time"

  • Reply W Serba March 31, 2019 at 4:03 pm

    If light is our medium of information exchange, and that our intimate knowledge of the universe is limited to that which interacts with light, how can we definitively claim those other possibilities don't actually exist if they don't interact with light? Those other fundamental fields must also be mediums of information exchange, but how does one wrap one's mind around how they really are? Must one be familiar with the raw data? Is there any living human being who could legitimately do that given our short life span? I imagine that's what a Feynman diagram really is, a conceptual model that agrees with the data. If we must use our imaginations to perceive these things as they really are, isn't the rabbit hole of analogies that approach the real meaning an inevitability, even between those with PhDs? In the game of signifier and signified, are you sure you're all on the same page? Is that why Feynman preferred to use so many examples? With more examples of concept comes more clarity of concept, i.e. the more descriptive one becomes the more precise one becomes?

  • Reply Googleis Evil April 8, 2019 at 2:19 am

    In August the eclipse is? Really????? Which YEAR????, Do you even understand that you do not exist in time? Please specify the time you are referencing too when talking on your videos, sigh. and yes I mean the pun psi

  • Reply Leo Marrah April 14, 2019 at 8:46 am

    Does anyone else notice all the background clicking?

  • Reply Dmitry Miserev April 18, 2019 at 5:40 pm

    Nice video. Just a little moment to clarify. When you were giving examples of higher order diagrams contributing to the scattering amplitude of two electrons (or 4-point electron correlation function), you included the diagrams corresponding to the dressing of external electron lines. These diagrams should not be included for any correlation function. It is what's called amputation of external legs. Technically, it's seen from the definition of correlation functions where you take the vacuum average from the T-ordered product of the operators in the interaction representation which can be rewritten as the T-ordered product of the Heisenberg operators (bare operators) and the S-matrix (and do not forget to divide the result by the vacuum average of the S-matrix). It is easy to show that only connected diagrams with amputated external legs contribute to the interaction part of the correlation functions. Thank you.

  • Reply Michael Cox April 24, 2019 at 3:06 am

    Poor Matt, having to balance on his toes all the time.

  • Reply Smoked Paprika May 1, 2019 at 6:42 pm

    This video deserves more views.

  • Reply Dr B. C. May 12, 2019 at 4:06 am

    Wow, I am your biggest fan! You probably hear this a lot, and it must be very tiresome. But hey, I am here now, so it will be a easier from now on. Anyway keep up the good work. And at least you have one person who can understand what you are trying to do.

  • Reply Q.D. White May 16, 2019 at 4:16 am

    If any path that can happen does happen, I'm disappointed they didn't call it Quantum Murphy's Law.

  • Reply David Wilkie May 21, 2019 at 12:25 am

    Feynman Diagrams get closer to a systematic way of showing the external properties of the "Pacman" dimension and Renormalization = instantaneous to eternal zero-infinity range of Temporal Superposition Holography?

  • Reply Risto Paasivirta June 2, 2019 at 5:01 am

    "You are a hack!"
    "Oh my, thank you very much."

  • Reply Joshua Scholar June 10, 2019 at 9:08 am

    You said that superluminal paths add little to the probability – but not zero?

  • Reply The Truth of the Matter June 18, 2019 at 11:15 pm

    If we lived in a One Electron Universe then the electrons would have infinite mass right? Maybe that's why the equation keeps giving us an infinite electron mass.

  • Reply Tyler Hills June 20, 2019 at 10:19 pm

    Anyone else see a problem with, "physicists have geniously solved the problem of the 'inconvenient' mathematical infinities by folding in a term to correct for these errors" … i.e. something has gone horribly wrong … But it could be literally ANYWHERE from our base assumptions starting at the very beginning of the foundations of QFT to now … But let's stick with our current path and "throw in an error term" i.e. a term to soak up all the error we've accumulated so far" ?

  • Reply Tyler Hills June 20, 2019 at 10:22 pm

    I think in both worlds of mathematics and physics we need to stop using the words 1) infinite 2) infinitely many 3) infinitesimally etc and replace them with words like "unbounded". Doing so will mentally change our perspective to a MUCH more logical, grounded approach to all these subjects, starting with calculus. Not only would students benefit, but professional physicists and mathematicians as well and even the progress of all these subjects

  • Reply Tyler Hills June 20, 2019 at 10:25 pm

    "this renormalization trick can be used to eliminate many of the infinities that arise in QFT" … I.e. this trick of making up terms to soak in all the unexplainable errors is wonderfully useful ?

  • Reply Tyler Hills June 20, 2019 at 10:26 pm

    I strongly recommend to all physicists and mathematicians to abandon this concept of infinities

  • Reply priyank tamilsekaran June 23, 2019 at 9:43 am

    can anyone guide me to find his videos in order, like from his 1st video

  • Reply Trog Veneerer June 28, 2019 at 1:42 am

    How many love knots can yourself actually make and move with it????

  • Reply shinzon0 July 7, 2019 at 9:13 am

    @14:40, the sum of the real and the sum of the IMAGINARY components, not complex 😉 – But of course great video!

  • Reply WhimpyPatrol July 8, 2019 at 6:37 am

    Clearly, Feynman who lived in the 20th century was a modern quantum physicist.  I don't understand how some caveman from prehistoric times was able to make this video about him.

  • Reply Alexander Daly July 20, 2019 at 1:16 am

    existential angst screech

  • Reply brinbrin62 62200 July 20, 2019 at 6:44 am

    This T-shirt do not fit you.

  • Reply Rosolino Lo Sciuto August 10, 2019 at 8:38 pm

    Quando una persona muore se ne rende conto all istante perche' la mente e' quantica e' il pensiero e' cosmico

  • Reply amir ali August 13, 2019 at 7:31 am

    very very informative channel I like it

  • Reply wulphstein August 16, 2019 at 2:10 am

    You could consider a kind of virtual photon that has zero energy. It could still have frequency, energy, wavelength and momentum states. It would have c and h built into it, but zero energy, zero energized quantum states.

  • Reply Barrack Obama Vlogs August 23, 2019 at 6:41 pm


  • Reply Dave Brown August 27, 2019 at 3:30 pm

    I can't believe how much we still don't know, we make up theories on top of theories and still can't explain what gravity is?! We know the effects and can measure it but from the largest down to the smallest can't say what it is.

  • Reply lolnope 64 August 30, 2019 at 11:44 am

    2:35 if that's so, then we could use electrons as some sort of communication tool, or is that just the dumbest idea ever?

  • Reply reynaldo velasco September 2, 2019 at 7:59 am

    My son will solve this someday. Im too old now.

  • Reply Nad Senoj September 4, 2019 at 12:43 am

    could the electrons constant effect on the EM field, tie in somehow to pilot wave theory?

    I assume, (as a Layman) any radiated energy, would be inconceivably small. But so is an electron.

  • Reply Barrack Obama Vlogs September 8, 2019 at 11:06 pm

    This is so fucking useful.

  • Reply violentauntie September 23, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    Why not just call them 'FEYNAGRAMS'? You can have that for free…

  • Reply Nomen Nominandum September 25, 2019 at 6:53 pm

  • Reply Roy David September 28, 2019 at 4:58 am

    I don't understand, but it sounds so cool :v

  • Reply J LeMaire October 4, 2019 at 4:19 am

    Someone scienced this dude a bit more pectoral mass.

  • Reply Mekratrig October 11, 2019 at 10:46 pm

    Who and when was the standard module created. Was it Feinman?

  • Reply Lendy Pradhana October 20, 2019 at 3:02 pm

    Great!! Thanks for giving me such deep knowledge in just 15 minutes instead of 1 semester lecture..

  • Reply cosmos and physical laws November 3, 2019 at 4:01 pm

  • Reply Marsel UwU November 3, 2019 at 10:49 pm

    I have a question… so can we think that all of electric forces interaction that happens in the macroscopic level that seem to be continuous and smooth are all just emerged from exchanging virtual photons or many other quantized interactions in quantum level??

  • Reply RBBB2SG November 16, 2019 at 10:27 am

    Who else watches something completely different, falls asleep, then wakes up to this guy having talked for hours…….I'm not complaing, just happens a lot.

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