Articles, Blog

Prepositions of Time in English: BY, UNTIL, BY THE TIME, NO LATER THAN…

November 30, 2019

Hi, everybody. Welcome back to I’m Adam. In today’s video we’re going to look
at the prepositions: “by” and “until”. We’re going to look at the differences between
them, and how to use them, and what specific meanings they each have. We’re also going to look at the expression:
“by the time”, as another way of using “by” or whatever situation, and
this one: “no ________ than”. Now, the reason why I left this blank is because
you can actually put quite a few words in there. We’re going to look specifically at: “no later
than” to replace “by” and “until”, but for now I want you to also understand that there’s
other uses for it, and I’ll give you some examples of those. Now, before I start I will say Emma did a
very good lesson about “by” and “until”. Mine is a little bit different because I’m
going to show you some other situations where you will use one or the other. Okay? So we’re going to start by figuring out:
What’s the difference between these two? So look at our
example sentences. I’ll get to our little
time map in a second. “I’ll be at the office until noon.”,
“I’ll be at the office by noon.” Now, first of all, let’s assume
the average workday is about… Is from 9 until about 5
o’clock, but I have some… I have some meetings in the afternoon
so I will have to leave the office. But if you want to meet with
me, I’ll be there until noon. What does that mean? It means that I will arrive at the office at the
usual time, 9 o’clock, and I will stay there. So my stay at the office
will continue until noon. At noon I will leave. Okay? So this is when
we’re using “until”. Now, before I get in… Into that again, let’s
look at the second one. “I’ll be at the office by noon.” So, here, we’re looking at somewhere in this
time, but not later than noon I will arrive at the office. Okay? Now, what’s the key
difference between these two? Well, one, something continues. An action starts, continues, and it ends
at that time mentioned after “until”. So both of them
have an end time. You could even say a deadline,
but that’s for other uses. There’s an end time. And that end time is noon. Okay? Something will
happen at noon. Now, in the case of “by”,
it could happen before. In the case of “until”,
only one thing will happen. But the key to remember: When we use
“by”, we’re looking at a finite action. This arrive is a one-time thing.
Right? It’ll… It can happen here, it could
happen here, it could even happen here. With “until” only
here will I leave. Okay? Now, what’s the difference, another
difference that we have to think about? Is not only the continuance of an action
and the finite situation of an action; here, we’re looking
at something ending. My time at the office will end. Here, something
can end or start. So if you want to meet me, I’ll be in
the office by noon, so you can meet me from noon until 5. So the start time, the earliest
time you can meet me is noon. The latest time you can meet me is just before
noon because I’m leaving at noon. Right? So that’s one thing
to keep in mind. The… Basically the
implied situation. Now: “I’ll be at the office by
noon and I’ll stay until 5.” You can use both of
them in one sentence. Sometime in here I’ll arrive, and then
from 12 till 5, I’ll be at the office. So, what’s the key? Now I hope you
basically notice this. What’s the key difference in these two
sentences, is it the preposition? Yes. Different prepositions,
different meanings. But what I hope you realize is that
the difference is in the verb “be”. Why? What does “be” mean here, and
what does “be” mean here? “Be… I’ll be at
the office until… Until noon”, means I will stay
at the office until noon. So this situation will continue. Here, “be” means arrive. “I will arrive at the
office by noon.” So, one point here
in this time… Timeframe I guess you could
call it, something will happen. Continued, finite. “Finite” means it’s a one-time
action and that’s it, it’s finished. So that’s a very important
thing to remember with “by”. Okay? “By”, and we also think about:
“at”, “on”, or “before”. So, “at” for time. This is a little review
of prepositions. “At 5 o’clock”, “on
Friday”, “on day”, so: “At 5 o’clock or before.”,
“At noon or before.”, “On Friday or before.” Okay? “Until”… Now, we don’t use this preposition “to”,
but something continues to the end time. Okay? So that’s one way… Another way of thinking about
these two in terms of: What’s the difference? “By” or “before” continue “to”. Okay? We’re going to look at a few more samples,
and you’ll get a better idea of when to use “by”, when to use “until”. Okay, so let’s look at some more examples and
I want to come back to this idea of finite actions. Okay? “Finish” is a finite action. Now, just to clarify, again:
What does “finite” mean? It means it’s a
very limited time. It doesn’t go on
for a long time. So if you’re going to finish your homework, it
means last question answered, done, finished. You can’t be finishing for a long time because
the verb “finish” doesn’t extend; it’s done or it’s not done. Right? So: “I’ll finish my
homework until 5.” Now, a lot of people will say this, they will
write this, but technically it’s not correct. “I’ll finish my homework by 5.” is okay because
it’s a one-time situation and it’ll happen at 5 or before, at some
point in that time. So, how would you fix
the first sentence? Two ways. One: “I’ll finish
my homework at 5.” That’s one way. If you know you’re going to be
done at 5 you can say that. But the better thing to do is to change
the verb, make it a non-finite verb. “I’ll work on my
homework until 5.” Means work, work, work, time goes on, work, work,
work, time goes on, 5 o’clock, okay, I’m done. Finished, not finished,
not important. If you finished, great. If you didn’t finish,
that’s fine. 5 o’clock is your end time, then you will
finish later if you didn’t finish by 5. Okay. Now, another thing to keep in mind: We can
use both prepositions with any tense. You can talk about the past,
you can talk about the future. But when we’re using perfect tenses,
we use the “by” preposition. Let’s look at examples. “I’ll have completed my
tasks by 5 o’clock.” “Will have completed”, this
is your future perfect. The future perfect often
makes use of “by”. Okay? We can also talk
about the past perfect. Now, here, I’m starting to
introduce: “By the time”. “By the time” has the exact same use or the
exact same function as “by”, except that now instead of saying: “By 5 o’clock”,
“By Tuesday”, “By next year”, I’m giving you a
more general time. And then I’m
identifying that time. Right? So I can be more generic… General. I can say anything. “By the time we’re through”, I don’t have
to give you a specific time, I can give you a specific situation. “By the time he arrived”, so now the
time is when this action happened. What time of the day? I don’t know. Not important. “By the time he arrived”, so I have my adjective
clause to identify the time, and then I have my next clause: “She
had already left.” So, because at this
time he arrived… “By this time” means at
this time or before. Right? So if it happened before, I must use the past
perfect to show the relationship in time. Okay? By the time he arrived,
she had already left. “I’ll have completed my
tasks by 5 o’clock.” So 5 o’clock, they’re done. Okay. Let’s look at “until” just to show you there
could be past, or present, future, etc. “She waited in the lobby
until he arrived.” So she waited, waited,
waited, waited, waited. Oh, there he is. So, again, you don’t have
to use a specific time. You can use an actual
clause, and then there… This is therefore a clause marker, an
adverb clause marker, subordinate clause. “Until he arrives, she…” “She can”, this is an “n”. “…she can wait in the lobby. Until he arrives, she can…”
so we have a present. “Until he arrives,” keep in mind this is
still an adverb clause now we’re looking at. You can’t use “by” as a clause marker,
as an adverb clause, but you can use: “By the time” with an adjective clause
or “until” with an adverb clause. “Until he arrives, she
will wait in the lobby.” Present simple, future. Again, think about when. When he arrives, she will have been
waiting in the thing for five hours. You can also use the perfect with “until”, but
then you have to specify the time period. When you’re using perfect, go
with the “by”, more common. Use “until” as an adverb
clause conjunction. That’s another big difference
between these two. “By” always a preposition. “Until” can be a preposition or a conjunction
for an adverb clause, so that’s important to understand as well. So now we’re going to look at expressions that
we can use to replace these in case we’re ever not sure. Okay? Okay, so let’s do a little bit of review
before we look at some other expressions. Before I want to do anything else,
actually, I want to mention “until”. You might notice in many situations people
using the word “till” or sometimes they’ll use like an
abbreviation: “’til”. “Till” is a little more common, “’til” is
a bit more common in American English. Personally, there’s only one letter difference, like
one, two, three, four; one, two, three, four, five. Just write “until”. If you’re not sure, use
“until” in your writing. In spoken English: “till”,
“’til”, both okay. In written English
go with “until”. Now, let’s review
this: “By the time”. We use “by the time” plus an adjective
clause to identify which time. So we can have two options. I can say: “By the end of the lesson…”,
like let’s say we’re having a lesson now, so: “By the end of this lesson, you
will have learned about ‘by’, ‘until’.” Or: “By the time”-which time?-“that we are done,
you will have learned about ‘by’ and ‘until’.” So, there are two
ways to use “by”. The thing to remember is when you use: “By
the time”, make sure to identify which time. If you have a specific time… “End of the lesson” means this particular
time when the lesson is finished, and then go on with your next clause saying what
will have happened then or before. Maybe you already understand “by” and
“until”, in which case, good stuff. Now, another thing I want to
look at: “I’ll be done by 7.”, “I’ll be done no later than 7.” What’s the difference
in these two meanings? Nothing. We can use: “no later than”
as a replacement for “by”. Now, why am I showing you this? If you’re ever in a situation where you’re
writing and you’re not exactly sure if you should use “by” or “until”, and you don’t
want to make a mistake, maybe on a test or whatever the situation,
here’s another option. “No later than” means this is the absolute
latest time, so this time or before. It basically means the
same thing as “by”. Okay? And again, I’m still using a
finite verb in this case. “When are you working until?” So I’m asking: When is the…? When are you ending your work? “7 at the latest.” This is another expression, but be
careful with it because some people say: “Oh, I’m working until
7 at the latest.”, “Until 7” means 7 is the
latest, so “at the latest” becomes redundant. If you’re going to use this
expression, don’t use “until”. If you’re going to use “until”,
don’t use this added expression. And: “I’ll be there…” Now, we can go the opposite way. We can talk about earlier:
“no earlier than”. So: “no later than” means end time; “no
earlier than” means beginning time. Do you remember that graph we looked at before
when I said “by” could be an end or a start? Well, that’s where we have this. The key to remember is that when we turn it
around to use “by” or “until”, then we’re going to basically go with the opposite
verb, like negative or positive. “I’ll be there no earlier than
noon.”, “I won’t be there by noon.”, “I won’t be there until noon.” So “by noon” means noon or
before I won’t show up. “I won’t be there until noon.” At noon I will
arrive and continue. Okay? So the “won’t be” will
continue until noon. The “won’t be” will continue… Will be from noon or before. And again, different meaning to the verb “be”, but
you can use: “no earlier than”, “no later than”. You can also use these. These are basically minimizers
and maximizers, this expression. “No later than”, maximum. “No earlier than”, minimum
in terms of time. You can use other expressions, you can use:
“No sooner than”, basically means the same as earlier. You can say: “No more than”, means a
maximum amount or a maximum number. “No less than” or “no fewer
than” means a minimum. So, these are good to have for time, but just so
you understand, they’re applicable to basically everything; numbers, quantities,
time, situations, etc. So, I hope that all of this helped you understand
how to use “by”, “until”, “by the time”, and “no later than”. I hope you enjoyed this lesson. Please subscribe to my
YouTube channel if you did. If you have any questions, please go to,
join the forum and ask me the questions you have. I’ll be happy to try
to answer them. There’s also… There’s also a quiz
at Take the quiz, make sure you understand which one
of these expressions to use based on the context. And, of course, come back
again soon, see us again, we’ll have more great lessons
for you, and I’ll see ya then. Bye.

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  • Reply Ana Lins October 22, 2017 at 4:36 pm

    Simply the best!!!

  • Reply ijeoma ireh October 28, 2017 at 7:48 am

    very tiny words on the board. not legible at all. not bold enough to follow the lesson. do something about it. use Clare's method of displaying words on the screen. tnx

  • Reply Edmar Silverio October 31, 2017 at 8:44 am

    Well done . You are very good English teacher !

  • Reply janeth suarez November 4, 2017 at 3:27 am

    Adam, I just want to thank you for your videos, you're such a good teacher

  • Reply Ngawang Nyandak November 8, 2017 at 8:44 am


  • Reply Karishhma November 9, 2017 at 1:57 pm


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    6:58 Rihanna feat. Adam

  • Reply Maradona Isac Newton November 19, 2017 at 4:25 pm


  • Reply ALFONSO MOSER November 19, 2017 at 8:50 pm

    This lesson is quite difficult because when I am talking I don’t think about which preposition I should use and right now I realised that sometimes I make mistakes…. thanks Adam

  • Reply محب علي جابر الساكوي December 1, 2017 at 3:38 pm

    i hop you to be moslim

  • Reply Chia-Chi Yen December 3, 2017 at 6:50 am

    nice lesson! very easy to understand! thx.

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    The best teacher. Love From pakistan.

  • Reply VRISHALI GORADE December 20, 2017 at 1:11 pm

    Adam, you are THE BEST!!!! Your videos are easy to understand and very helpful for people like me who are not native speakers. Thanks a lot!

  • Reply Devian 258 January 7, 2018 at 1:48 pm

    Cool video. Awesome explanation!!

  • Reply marrs socket January 8, 2018 at 1:02 pm

    I don't know why but I can understand 100% of your english pronunce

  • Reply Shahar S January 13, 2018 at 10:09 am

    Adam, Thank you, Thank you & Thank you!

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    Ingilizce öğrenmek için dinliyorum Adam çok iyi anlatiyorsun😊👏👏👏

  • Reply Luis Torres January 18, 2018 at 2:30 am

    Perú 🙂

  • Reply Mohd Saleem Mohd Saleem January 18, 2018 at 1:43 pm

    thank you sir
    I will say thank again by 12 pm.
    nd I will say untill evening.
    my brain has been set.

  • Reply Sil Liem January 22, 2018 at 2:02 pm

    Hope one day you will teach me face to face… thanks for your lessons really help me…

  • Reply Cham Muslim today January 26, 2018 at 4:41 am

    Helllo Teacher Adam , can i download you Video and post on the facebook.?

  • Reply Ali Khan January 27, 2018 at 4:51 pm

    Sir you are following American's English or British?

  • Reply bismarck encarnacion February 9, 2018 at 10:28 pm

    thanks for helping me understand this.

  • Reply Sharad Kumar Tiwari February 19, 2018 at 6:39 am

    Adam sir, you are a great teacher. The way you explain grammatical lessons is awesome.

  • Reply Verus Lopez February 26, 2018 at 10:52 am

    Adam, you lessons are great!!!!!!Thank you

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    It is The best channel for me. you are amazing teacher i hope to be like you

  • Reply Ismaciil Cabdulahi March 28, 2018 at 3:16 pm

    you mean until is used verb with starting point and ending point while by is for arrival right?

  • Reply Mohamed Majouti March 28, 2018 at 7:45 pm

    always you did great sir we can't than you for your efforts

  • Reply Sameer Ali April 2, 2018 at 5:22 am

    You are great sir.

  • Reply Ghita Lah April 8, 2018 at 12:16 am

    Thank you teacher very useful

  • Reply Study Study Point April 9, 2018 at 3:18 pm


  • Reply Hugo Banchieri April 21, 2018 at 10:04 pm

    Hello. I am from Argentina. Thank you very much for your videos. They are so clear. I would like to ask you the following :
    Peter is visiting my country. And I need to ask him when he is leaving Argentina. Can I ask "when are you leaving.?" But i think it is rude. Can I ask "when are you staying here till? Or "untill when are you staying?"
    What about "up to when are you staying? Is not good english (Is it correct)
    What about "til when are you staying?
    A similar thing occurrs with arrival day in Argentina. Could i ask "since when are you here? " Or "when are you here since?
    These questions are difficult for spanish native speakers.
    Perhaps these questions are more natural with "how long" But I want to hear a date as an answer instead "for two weeks" Or any other period of time.
    Thanks in advance.

  • Reply MrAkarock April 23, 2018 at 3:15 am

    I realised how much time and money wasted on my schooling without learning proper English. In schools they don't teach with such elegance and effort. Thanks YouTube and Adam for making English learning easy.

  • Reply Natalie Lam May 6, 2018 at 12:11 pm

    Adam, you are a very good English teacher. Thank you for your videos.

  • Reply Eva Singla May 15, 2018 at 3:54 pm

    sir,your way of teaching is really awesome… understand everything. Thanks for the valuable knowledge you provide to your students

  • Reply Beti Beti May 22, 2018 at 4:42 pm

    Hey Adam tnx for all

  • Reply Arvind Kumar May 23, 2018 at 2:08 pm

    Thank you so much. It was really very very helpful.

  • Reply Jorge Obet González Rosas May 29, 2018 at 3:21 am

    I wanna know the difference between by and before

  • Reply danny sam June 13, 2018 at 7:46 pm

    Would u like to teach me or make a video about how to spell a word that have same look like.. Down, Done type, tape, tags, tasks, take, and etc .. How to get correct..thank u

  • Reply Annie Walker June 30, 2018 at 4:39 pm

    hi, Adam, Can you teach us more about by the time , and when , what tense should I use and what's the difference between these two , by the time, and when

  • Reply Annie Walker July 1, 2018 at 8:40 am

    Hi, Adam,

    I have few questions about by the time and when. I'm really confused about it
    1. By the time he arrives, I will have slept for 8 hrs. (correct, right?)-refer to future
    By the time he arrives, I have slept for 8 hrs. (correct, right?) – refer to present
    2. By the time he arrives, I will be sleeping for 8 hrs. (correct??)
    If it's not correct, how to say that?
    Can I say, when he arrives, I will be sleeping for 8 hrs. or when he arrives, I'll sleep for 8 hrs. (which one is correct?)
    3. Finally, what's the difference between by the time and when? how to use them.
    Best Regards

  • Reply Reni Pratiwi July 3, 2018 at 2:24 pm

    Every english teacher must follow the way you teach: very detail. I can feel your enthusiasm when you're teaching, as a result, we are enthusiastic to learn english. All the best for you.

  • Reply Homie lion July 16, 2018 at 1:15 pm

    Why use would is a polite way ?

  • Reply Lourdes Haven July 19, 2018 at 5:37 pm

    Hello Adam!!! Thanks for your classes. You help me usderstand better the grammar. Still I need learn so much…

  • Reply Cristina Alves August 4, 2018 at 4:18 pm

    I love your explanations.

  • Reply Mostafa Hassan August 10, 2018 at 3:33 pm

    high appreciation to your efforts. you are my favorite. by the way

  • Reply Manoj Raghav August 17, 2018 at 1:50 pm

    She might have done work until now or she might have done work by now.. Which one is correct & how… Could you please let me know..

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    love your lesson always, clarifying every details of the knowledge point. very useful!

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    Thanks. Very nice lesson.

  • Reply SH H September 28, 2018 at 8:00 am


  • Reply Puneet Singh October 6, 2018 at 7:24 am

    I will watch your video by 6:00am until 6:06 AM I RIGHT?

  • Reply Crânio Digital October 24, 2018 at 6:27 pm

    Great teacher you are, Adam! Thank you once again for one more lesson.

  • Reply Yulián Buzo October 28, 2018 at 10:29 pm

    I wish I had found this channel earlier this year.

  • Reply Moctar Adam Tomas October 31, 2018 at 5:34 am

    Which is correct? You could say or you can say?

  • Reply haroon hejran November 5, 2018 at 7:22 am

    Tnx Sir Adam

  • Reply Jils John November 21, 2018 at 11:09 am

    it is really interesting and understandable to anybody. wonderful.

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    I love this class!!!

  • Reply Jonathan Andrade December 2, 2018 at 4:33 am

    Great explanation!

  • Reply Kashif Ali Khan December 2, 2018 at 1:15 pm

    Nyce Video sir

  • Reply Kashif Ali Khan December 2, 2018 at 1:15 pm


  • Reply Nauman Adil December 3, 2018 at 4:31 pm

    Sir if you have been my English teacher in schools i would have easily gotten 8.5 bands in IELTS.
    Salute to your teaching style and body language.

  • Reply Robert Lee December 6, 2018 at 5:19 am


  • Reply pushpendra Ambience December 30, 2018 at 2:05 pm

    Where do we use " nevertheless" ? Please explain it

  • Reply Periklis Gewrgiou January 14, 2019 at 6:19 pm

    thank you so much

  • Reply geeta reddy January 17, 2019 at 8:05 pm

    Really I impressed by you. Amazing teaching keep going I’m happy learn

  • Reply bagadhar Taid mishing culture January 26, 2019 at 6:58 am

    hello sir, may I know your country name please?

  • Reply Parminder Singh February 15, 2019 at 7:45 pm

    another use of by like this book write by Raman

  • Reply Najeeb Khan February 28, 2019 at 2:32 pm

    They travelled in_ Bus ? or by ?I so confuse ?

  • Reply Laura Tarverdian March 4, 2019 at 4:45 pm

    you are the best. I am from Armenia. and everything is so clear. I understend everything. thank you

  • Reply Hue Color March 6, 2019 at 9:56 am

    Thanks Adam.😀😄

  • Reply Linh Nguyen March 13, 2019 at 6:38 am

    Thank you Teacher Adam for such a comprehensive explanation on a tough grammar point!

  • Reply Touba Yousseff March 24, 2019 at 12:26 pm

    Thanks for your video.
    Does 'by the time'mean when or before?

  • Reply Darth Vader April 28, 2019 at 12:29 pm

    Great Professor. Amazing the lessons.

  • Reply Jimmy Damis May 17, 2019 at 9:59 pm

    This is good English practice

  • Reply naufal menggambar May 19, 2019 at 5:39 am

    Thank you for sharing your knowledge prepositions of time in english

  • Reply JESSICA AMEZQUITA May 20, 2019 at 6:38 am

    I understand everything in English. However, I don't know the grammar rules. That is why I am studying English as a second language now.

  • Reply Shahi Doll May 31, 2019 at 1:36 pm

    You're the best!.

  • Reply Lim Li Hua June 9, 2019 at 2:52 am

    Must you add already if it is not in the question? Synthesis

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    You are great i love you

  • Reply Newar Sorchy July 5, 2019 at 5:21 am

    Thank you very much…where you have been when I did the ielts exam last week…

  • Reply Nibash Love July 8, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    A great lesson got to learn sir .Thank you very much .

  • Reply Bunyod Mamadaliev July 14, 2019 at 5:55 pm


  • Reply Playboy 999 July 14, 2019 at 11:18 pm

    I will have eaten my dinner by 12 clock
    Is this correct??

  • Reply Sandip Wadgaonkar July 16, 2019 at 6:53 pm

    When are you open until? = What time are you open?
    Pls. guide.

  • Reply Bezaliel Pereira Da Silva July 24, 2019 at 2:08 am

    It is a wonderful leson Mr Adam.!!

  • Reply Cesar Miniao July 25, 2019 at 1:24 pm


  • Reply Ertuğrul Çakır August 2, 2019 at 11:26 am


  • Reply Mahesh Lund August 4, 2019 at 1:55 pm

    By the time you are done teaching the uses of 'THE' we'll have got out of the dilemma. Thanks 👍

  • Reply Melina M August 5, 2019 at 3:15 pm

    What is the difference between "when" and "by the time"????
    Can we replace "when" with "by the time" in future perfect tense?

  • Reply Lina Dhaybi September 7, 2019 at 6:11 pm

    informative video

  • Reply Ramesh Y September 27, 2019 at 1:25 pm

    Nice lesson

  • Reply Udomsook Chaiyasit October 15, 2019 at 12:41 pm

    Adam, you are my great teacher ever. My English skills improving because I continually study your lesson.

  • Reply Otgoo Sukhee October 18, 2019 at 10:37 am

    Thank you from Mongolia

  • Reply Okta Fia October 31, 2019 at 9:12 am

    Oktafia Sari, agriculture faculty, from lampung of university, class agh B

  • Reply Udaan Educations October 31, 2019 at 2:10 pm

    Thanks a lot
    You are absolutely a great teacher sir.

  • Reply masterroshi November 9, 2019 at 2:28 pm

    Is it possible to say " She had waited in the lobby until he arrived?

  • Reply Thunder Storm November 16, 2019 at 4:20 am

    Thanks brother

  • Reply 이영근 November 19, 2019 at 2:34 pm

    It is too complicated grammar for me. . TT

  • Reply Ayan Farah November 20, 2019 at 4:43 am

    Adam, I connection your webset almost 2years , I really understood your emglish teaching as well. I can say, You,'re the best English teacher in the world
    Go forward🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🙏🤙🤙🤙🤙👌👌👌 well-done.

  • Reply chitta ranjan acharya November 24, 2019 at 3:06 pm

    Thanks a lot I am learning with my kiddo , your channel is best. Can you distinguish at vs by. While using for time context. By 5 pm vs at 5 pm

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