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Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of time

December 4, 2019

I want to share with you some ideas about the secret power of time, in a very short time. Video: All right, start the clock please. 30 seconds studio. Keep it quiet please. Settle down. It’s about time. End sequence. Take one. 15 seconds studio. 10, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two … Philip Zimbardo: Let’s tune into the conversation of the principals in Adam’s temptation. “Come on Adam, don’t be so wishy-washy. Take a bite.” “I did.” “One bite, Adam. Don’t abandon Eve.” “I don’t know, guys. I don’t want to get in trouble.” “Okay. One bite. What the hell?” (Laughter) Life is temptation. It’s all about yielding, resisting, yes, no, now, later, impulsive, reflective, present focus and future focus. Promised virtues fall prey to the passions of the moment. Of teenage girls who pledged sexual abstinence and virginity until marriage — thank you George Bush — the majority, 60 percent, yielded to sexual temptations within one year. And most of them did so without using birth control. So much for promises. Now lets tempt four-year-olds, giving them a treat. They can have one marshmallow now. But if they wait until the experimenter comes back, they can have two. Of course it pays, if you like marshmallows, to wait. What happens is two-thirds of the kids give in to temptation. They cannot wait. The others, of course, wait. They resist the temptation. They delay the now for later. Walter Mischel, my colleague at Stanford, went back 14 years later, to try to discover what was different about those kids. There were enormous differences between kids who resisted and kids who yielded, in many ways. The kids who resisted scored 250 points higher on the SAT. That’s enormous. That’s like a whole set of different IQ points. They didn’t get in as much trouble. They were better students. They were self-confident and determined. And the key for me today, the key for you, is, they were future-focused rather than present-focused. So what is time perspective? That’s what I’m going to talk about today. Time perspective is the study of how individuals, all of us, divide the flow of your human experience into time zones or time categories. And you do it automatically and non-consciously. They vary between cultures, between nations, between individuals, between social classes, between education levels. And the problem is that they can become biased, because you learn to over-use some of them and under-use the others. What determines any decision you make? You make a decision on which you’re going to base an action. For some people it’s only about what is in the immediate situation, what other people are doing and what you’re feeling. And those people, when they make their decisions in that format — we’re going to call them “present-oriented,” because their focus is what is now. For others, the present is irrelevant. It’s always about “What is this situation like that I’ve experienced in the past?” So that their decisions are based on past memories. And we’re going to call those people “past-oriented,” because they focus on what was. For others it’s not the past, it’s not the present, it’s only about the future. Their focus is always about anticipated consequences. Cost-benefit analysis. We’re going to call them “future-oriented.” Their focus is on what will be. So, time paradox, I want to argue, the paradox of time perspective, is something that influences every decision you make, you’re totally unaware of. Namely, the extent to which you have one of these biased time perspectives. Well there is actually six of them. There are two ways to be present-oriented. There is two ways to be past-oriented, two ways to be future. You can focus on past-positive, or past-negative. You can be present-hedonistic, namely you focus on the joys of life, or present-fatalist — it doesn’t matter, your life is controlled. You can be future-oriented, setting goals. Or you can be transcendental future: namely, life begins after death. Developing the mental flexibility to shift time perspectives fluidly depending on the demands of the situation, that’s what you’ve got to learn to do. So, very quickly, what is the optimal time profile? High on past-positive. Moderately high on future. And moderate on present-hedonism. And always low on past-negative and present-fatalism. So the optimal temporal mix is what you get from the past — past-positive gives you roots. You connect your family, identity and your self. What you get from the future is wings to soar to new destinations, new challenges. What you get from the present hedonism is the energy, the energy to explore yourself, places, people, sensuality. Any time perspective in excess has more negatives than positives. What do futures sacrifice for success? They sacrifice family time. They sacrifice friend time. They sacrifice fun time. They sacrifice personal indulgence. They sacrifice hobbies. And they sacrifice sleep. So it affects their health. And they live for work, achievement and control. I’m sure that resonates with some of the TEDsters. (Laughter) And it resonated for me. I grew up as a poor kid in the South Bronx ghetto, a Sicilian family — everyone lived in the past and present. I’m here as a future-oriented person who went over the top, who did all these sacrifices because teachers intervened, and made me future oriented. Told me don’t eat that marshmallow, because if you wait you’re going to get two of them, until I learned to balance out. I’ve added present-hedonism, I’ve added a focus on the past-positive, so, at 76 years old, I am more energetic than ever, more productive, and I’m happier than I have ever been. I just want to say that we are applying this to many world problems: changing the drop-out rates of school kids, combating addictions, enhancing teen health, curing vets’ PTSD with time metaphors — getting miracle cures — promoting sustainability and conservation, reducing physical rehabilitation where there is a 50-percent drop out rate, altering appeals to suicidal terrorists, and modifying family conflicts as time-zone clashes. So I want to end by saying: many of life’s puzzles can be solved by understanding your time perspective and that of others. And the idea is so simple, so obvious, but I think the consequences are really profound. Thank you so much. (Applause)

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  • Reply BallinTrollin June 22, 2009 at 5:29 pm

    maybe you should add get a job 'that's worth the time of your limited life'. i assume you work for a company you actually care less about if not for the money? either way i say to each his own. enjoy your job as you seem to be proud by it.

  • Reply Ezmarii June 22, 2009 at 5:58 pm

    He breaks it down nicely into the different ways we as humans feel time; our varying perceptions of time.

    I heard we have something in the brain that changes the timing of electrical signals in our brain&nervous system. in different situations, this can speed up or slow down, changing our perception of time at it's core-it speeds up in situations of fight/flight, making the world around us appear slow and slows down in times of euphoria/love, so 5 hours feel like 1 with your loved ones.

  • Reply dailydoodles June 22, 2009 at 6:00 pm

    it's always now.

  • Reply biggerflexible June 22, 2009 at 6:08 pm

    I love the company I work for, LOVE lol. I get paid $35 an hour to play on the internet all day yay me.

  • Reply AVTPro June 22, 2009 at 6:11 pm

    Phenomenal. Very well done.

  • Reply Maxim Babij June 22, 2009 at 6:19 pm

    where do u work?

  • Reply Waranoa June 22, 2009 at 6:36 pm

    The strict devides he makes are supericial in my eyes. I'm future oriented positive, present fatalic hedonist and past positive oriented. According to him, I'm a strange breed, though I know a lot of people like myself.

  • Reply Aitch Kay June 22, 2009 at 7:25 pm

    WTF! What is your job and who do you work for?

  • Reply kght222 June 22, 2009 at 7:44 pm

    in the greater scheme of things no, in the here and now, yes, it either matters to someone you love, or who loves you, or just to you yourself, but it matters, but as i said in the greater scheme of things no, even the most brilliant person ever will be forgotten eventually, and eventually the thoughts that the most brilliant person comes up with will be thought, and keep in mind he wasn't speaking of experience, he was thinking of thought, and what you think more about

  • Reply Caligula June 22, 2009 at 8:23 pm

    What a bunch of stupidity. Talking fast doesn't make your points valuable. This is the same self-improvement masturbation that all the people loved in the 90's […]

  • Reply Minuteman June 22, 2009 at 8:36 pm

    Zimbardo is noo joke! he is a well respected psychologist

  • Reply 4lly0ur8as3 June 22, 2009 at 8:37 pm

    that's what's psychology is about this days :S

  • Reply The Arabic Student June 22, 2009 at 8:39 pm

    I guess he's saying that if you're poor and stupid then you're living in the present. Pretty much true. No need to go to college or save for retirement because that's going to detract from my here and now.

  • Reply NiNJack June 22, 2009 at 8:44 pm

    ZIMBARDO!!! our psychology class used to watch a dvd set with him as the host like once a week in class, this was for regular AND AP psychology… lol

    he looks like the devil
    but he is friggin legit man

  • Reply Timothy Sheehan June 22, 2009 at 8:44 pm

    Agreed that the focus of many people is the future goal outcome. Often easier to justify to others but harder to justify to oneself. I often talk about this with my brother. We both distinguish with opposite ends of the spectrum, he is past orientated and I am future. Interesting video!

  • Reply Lyfe June 22, 2009 at 9:03 pm

    What up Phil i was just watching your old psychology videos in class

  • Reply Promatheos June 22, 2009 at 10:02 pm

    It isn't always ways to base your decisions on present feelings, but as far as actually living one's life, it's best to be present oriented.

    If you're always thinking about the future, you won't be able to enjoy it when the future becomes the present. In other words, if you're always looking forward in time to that great thing, it won't be so great when it arrives. Only those who are present oriented can find lasting happiness, because it's always now. There is no other time than now.

  • Reply Aaron Keogh June 23, 2009 at 12:25 am

    He reminds me of someone who hypnotises someone

  • Reply annabodhi38 June 23, 2009 at 1:15 am

    I think he wrote a chapter for one of the text books I had, or maybe even the textbook itself… All he needs is a cape 🙂

  • Reply inersphobia June 23, 2009 at 1:21 am

    Yeah, he did a show on psychology for PBS years ago.

  • Reply GetMeThere1 June 23, 2009 at 3:16 am

    Too quick. Too thin. Needs examples, case studies.

  • Reply Caligula June 23, 2009 at 3:22 am

    [email protected] Take a deep breath and do review your comment once again. It is utterly nonsense, starting from the point where your claims become no-brained and commonsensical bullshit. Rater, have groundings in real Science or Philosophy to start with. Then you'll know at least what you are talking about. That appeal to authority and straw-man amongst other fallacies written just in two lines was just a sad, self-contradictory hyperbole on your side kid.

  • Reply TerriblePeril June 23, 2009 at 4:56 am

    ok, i dig it. i've read a lot of TM's books and listened to his talks and whatnot. a lot of it, to me, while it's great to think about, it's new-age pseudo-science. i think it's great that he's developed this way of expressing various psychedelic experiences, and he has a lot of insight into those things, as i've had a good amount myself, but ultimately i feel it's not the path worth pursuing with the substances, though there are parts that touch on what i feel is. thanks for the reply! 😀

  • Reply jamespfp June 23, 2009 at 5:05 am

    Didn't like it, because he chose to use hypnosis first. If you want to trick by suggestion, ask for permission.

    How does it follow that "Past-positive" equates to "family" and roots and grounding, other than his assertion? If I am born into an abusive or indifferent immediate family, I'm supposed to consider my "roots" as purer than the current plant?

  • Reply BallinTrollin June 23, 2009 at 6:57 am

    i agree, there are things that TM says that i don't believe however as you mentioned there are alot of insights that he mentioned that are very relevant especially in the timeline we all are living right now.

  • Reply ryanc519 June 23, 2009 at 7:00 am


    he watches back to the future way too much

  • Reply koalawithagun June 23, 2009 at 8:22 am

    Hahaha, I remember watching videos from this guy in high school psych.

  • Reply themindminder June 23, 2009 at 9:22 am

    The children that waited for two marshmellows may also be overweight, and have more tooth decay.

  • Reply Lester Vecsey June 23, 2009 at 1:58 pm

    what i don't like about his profession is when a soft or 'equality' view is used to describe people (leftover from freud), rather than just coming out and saying that a given viewpoint or personality that uses it is superior.

  • Reply AlexC June 23, 2009 at 4:15 pm

    Watched his videos all the time last yr in ap psych haha.

    and I wish he wasn't so rushed…his ideas are very profound if you pause the vid and take time to think about snippets of his dialogue :P.

  • Reply Solthiel June 23, 2009 at 8:02 pm

    Another Freud who makes sweeping statements of human variability. Unfortunate that sweeping statements are often wrong.

  • Reply endymion June 24, 2009 at 12:42 am

    Paradoxically, the reverse is much more likely to be the case. Young children have little conception of obesity or dental health, so such predilections would play little, if any, role in the purely hedonistic task of eating marshmallows. If the general life-strategy differences Zimbardo describes hold, however, the kids who waited to get 2 marshmallows will later have a different long-term goal (health), and avoid overeating altogether. Both groups, by then, will be able to overeat without wait.

  • Reply themindminder June 24, 2009 at 7:23 am

    Yes, You are right… I was just trying to be funny 🙂

  • Reply HigherPlanes June 24, 2009 at 2:45 pm

    Life is what happens while you're planning for the future.

  • Reply Quizoid Z June 24, 2009 at 4:31 pm

    I think there's also an element of "passing at the test." Going back to my kid brain, I always wanted to succeed. So, if someone put a challenge before me, I wanted to "win," at it. Even if I didn't like marshmallows, I'd be motivated to wait for two just to "win."

  • Reply Quizoid Z June 24, 2009 at 4:32 pm

    Interesting comment. Please elaborate.

  • Reply Quizoid Z June 24, 2009 at 4:33 pm

    TED often gives people very limited time. There's a point in there I almost guarantee he skips some slides to get under time.

  • Reply Solthiel June 24, 2009 at 4:36 pm

    I find that the theories presented in this video are too specified. How can he claim that "a person motivated toward the present is energetic." This rings of nothing more than a new Jungian philosophy. You cannot imagine that generalized statements about all of humanity will describe anything useful.

    Furthermore, how many people that are motivated toward the present are NOT energetic? Perhaps there are a great number of them. The generalization provides nothing useful to us.

  • Reply Snowflake70 June 24, 2009 at 10:14 pm

    Regardless of your view on time – "IT" never changes – the sooner you face that fact the better off you and the rest of us will be. Just my opinion? Perhaps. Man Is the only creature that can have a "perception" – after all …man created it. Thus he "should" be mindful of his own creation – ya think?

  • Reply ZEN TANGO Oscar Wright June 25, 2009 at 6:29 am

    fantastic presentation !….oscar wright, rome

  • Reply 1966human June 25, 2009 at 9:18 am

    Yep its " all in the head" how you think. You create your future with the good or bad decisions you make ( and unfortunately the actions of others). Similar to parallel universe theory.

  • Reply lightsculler June 26, 2009 at 7:17 am

    You seem perturbed by a specific generalisation in the video, however you argue against ALL generalisations in your first paragraph.
    Generalised statements about humanity, particularly psychology, are OFTEN useful, since they provide a means of describing a phenomenon without having to wade through a morass of justifications and clarifications.

    Generalisations describe general trends; which are real, exist; and are useful to know.

    Your second paragraph makes me think you took marshmellow.

  • Reply lightsculler June 26, 2009 at 7:19 am

    The bellow comment is in reply to Solthiel's silly post (6 comments below)

  • Reply Solthiel June 26, 2009 at 5:56 pm

    Oh no, not any specific generalization. Every generalization in the video. The only reason I use one example is because they are all equally absurd.

    Perhaps if he had cited any type of study that proves his statements I would be more apt to accept them. Instead he came upon the stage like any snake oil salesman and tried to sound official while saying absolutely nothing at all.

    Generalizations about humans are useless because they vary too much.

  • Reply Solthiel June 27, 2009 at 6:37 pm

    Generalizations are often useless when regarding human behavior.

    I invite you to make a generalization about human behavior that is not without glaring exceptions.

  • Reply Solthiel June 27, 2009 at 8:18 pm

    I have no problem with proposing them. But Zimbardo appears to present his paradigm as fact.

    He presents no experimental data besides anecdotes.

  • Reply Jacky Li June 28, 2009 at 6:51 am

    wow very informative on the time differences but i still dont really know how to control it…im more of a present…never think of the future… im screwed…any help?

  • Reply xanthus1 July 1, 2009 at 3:24 am

    He's taken my perspective on the subject , and organized it :P.

    Maybe I should organize and share my thoughts.

  • Reply SylvanaForrester July 5, 2009 at 2:32 am

    I was just about to post the same thing! 76 y.o., that's insane! I have respected Mr. Lombardo for a long time. Does anyone remember the Intro to Sociology series (don't quite remember what it was called) that would be replayed late nights on PBS (in the U.S.)? I loved watching it — even as a child.

  • Reply lvutodeath July 6, 2009 at 5:42 pm

    too bad it was too short, I wish it was longer like 18 minutes or something

  • Reply jaydesh9 July 9, 2009 at 4:05 am

    awesome !! i want to hear more !!

  • Reply MOOmanz July 11, 2009 at 11:50 pm

    Time Perspective? Some people! Those present oriented people, and past oriented people. If only we could concentrate on the future and draw more satisfaction from knowing that if we wait around for it, eventually the world will be just like having two marshmallows instead of one.

  • Reply Sumgai July 18, 2009 at 9:50 am

    The problem is that the lecturer's got it made. He's happy and satisfied with his life, so he can afford to talk about a balanced life.

    But if you're trying to achieve success and your chances aren't high – the future is uncertain and you're sure you'll be in shit if the outcome isn't what you planned for…

    What would you do? (1) Sacrifice some for the people around you and lower your chances to succeed, or (2) go full throttle and risk all your relationships and your health?

    I'll pick (2).

  • Reply Polynikes07 July 29, 2009 at 9:09 am

    Rarely is the choice so black and white. Those who focus only on two will be unhappy in what could be a very long present(eg til retirement) than those who make token efforts to enjoy life while they are living it as well.

  • Reply Grunthos The Flatulent August 20, 2009 at 9:26 pm

    That's ridiculous. The lecturer didn't always "have it made". If you read the book you will find he was deathly sick as a small child. And whatever you say, it still doesn't change the fact, timer perspective means a LOT to future success (and you can define that any way you like – I define it as achieving true inner happiness)

  • Reply William Robson September 16, 2009 at 12:27 am

    pick your friends wisely.

  • Reply euripideesshreds November 16, 2009 at 8:15 pm

    For me this was one of the most important talks. But I wish he'd taken 10 minutes instead of 7 to give the talk : ] sheesh guy, slow down a bit. Give the word "balance" it's due here, I had to listen twice just to get it you were goin so fast. But I'll listen often now that I'm on to you. Great research, good stuff, It explains a lot. If only I knew this stuff when I was younger. That's life though, find out what you need to know just before closing time, gotta come back tomorrow to get it.

  • Reply megalibra82 November 30, 2009 at 8:18 am

    Just another breath taking video from TED. youtube+TED= Changing my life and maybe others.

  • Reply rumit99 May 23, 2010 at 2:36 am

    @wetyewruyrtsutrdhjfg good point. I guess that's why successful people aren't always the most altruistic.

  • Reply J Bowers July 6, 2010 at 4:39 am

    @wetyewruyrtsutrdhjfg Well said..full throttle !

  • Reply quelorepario September 22, 2010 at 7:13 am

    @PracticalTheorist these researches proved that DELAYED GRATIFICATION is a huge indicator of success in adult life. The point here is simply that you can prioritize what is important.
    Greed is not the same as economy, you should revisit your definitions

  • Reply quelorepario September 22, 2010 at 7:23 am

    @PracticalTheorist An updated test for your adult life would be: You give up school now because it is boring or you sacrifice that boredom the next couple of years to get a diploma?
    Do you save money to achieve economical freedom in the near future or you rather to indulge every whim now and stay a clerk for life?
    It is not about your stereotyped "success", it is at the end about being responsible.

  • Reply Amru Alrayyis May 28, 2011 at 5:40 pm

    @PracticalTheorist This "Guy" is Dr. Philip Zimbardo. The man who conducted the famous stanford prison experiment, the man who found the fine line between good and evil and what makes people who they are, the man who was the PRESIDENT of the American Psychological Association TWICE. The man who taught in Yale, Stanford and Colombia. The man who grew up poor and ended up this. I think this is more than a man, I think he is a symbol for what ANYONE could achieve if they wanted to.

  • Reply ali abdullah May 2, 2012 at 11:26 pm

    He's 76! Omygod!

  • Reply Waylander June 27, 2012 at 5:25 am

    Enjoy life while you can. None of us are getting out of here alive!

  • Reply Wachira Marima September 5, 2012 at 9:27 am

    if his research is to be believed, you got about 5 on your SATs.

  • Reply Waylander September 7, 2012 at 11:41 pm

    P.S. you smell of wee

  • Reply Waylander September 8, 2012 at 4:51 am

    Just a bit, or lots? i have these new pads u see..

  • Reply Johnathon Candelario March 12, 2013 at 7:54 am

    Phillip. A Legend.

  • Reply IntegrityNotForSale March 26, 2013 at 10:06 am

    I would disagree, if you were saying that present-hedonism should be the leading trait in the life of an individual. In my experience present-hedonism is most likely to get you in to situations where you would rather not be. I would have to agree with the speaker that Balance is key no matter what. My personality would say that the Future should be observed where necessary, but that, yes, Present Hedonism, and Past Positive are as important as each other.

  • Reply whynottalklikeapirat April 17, 2013 at 9:54 pm

    time time time

  • Reply Ric-72 May 20, 2013 at 9:11 am

    Wow, the crowd is dead.

  • Reply cHroMatYc June 12, 2013 at 9:14 pm

    This guy is just a hypnotist. He discovered some relevant points in his research, but the main purpose is to hypnotize people, this is why he is in constant battle with short times of broadcasting. He expects us to believe that the moral relativity and the lack of social awareness are natural coordinates of human civilization. And it is true, but from the perspective of the global elites. Nowadays there is just a social construct that decides the nature of the personal choices of humans.

  • Reply digit432 June 13, 2013 at 8:14 pm

    woh he looks great for a 76 year old

  • Reply Jimmy Nardone June 16, 2013 at 11:54 am

    I remember hearing about the marshmallow study back when I was in 5th grade

  • Reply LAHegarty June 16, 2013 at 5:24 pm

    There's a longer one *Philip Zimbardo – The Secret Powers of Time

  • Reply CH33F Z33F September 27, 2013 at 10:15 pm

    I control time and space with my cock.

  • Reply rugbyperson15 September 30, 2013 at 11:45 pm

    Wow that was really good! I've never thought about it quite like that. Even just from these 7 minuets I understand myself ,and the way I think and do things, so much better!

  • Reply beautifulsmall October 3, 2013 at 9:11 pm

    But how do you change from throttle to coast. imagine a stairway ? A portal. List of society changing in a very positive way. It would be interesting to see how pandas and ants rely on memory and prediction.

  • Reply MEpianist October 3, 2013 at 10:27 pm

    Disliked: fucking GE ad

  • Reply Norman J. Murk October 4, 2013 at 3:28 am

    Ditto to comment below.

  • Reply provanost October 4, 2013 at 5:11 am

    My 2nd grade teacher replicated the delayed gratification experiment. Out of an overpopulated inner city class of about 38 students, only three, myself and two girls waited until our work was done and we got twice as many sweets as the other students. They seemed confused and angry then and most still are now. I do have an optimal time perspective profile and the difference between my adult life and that of my former class mates is huge. Most had kids and skipped college and property. Not I.

  • Reply Wings of Apollo October 4, 2013 at 10:21 pm

    very interesting!

  • Reply Declan Mudie Fitzgerald October 8, 2013 at 11:13 pm

    Check out Phillip Zimbardo -The Secret powers of time

  • Reply LittleBillysWorld October 9, 2013 at 7:38 pm

    I think Philip under-estimates the present. We live in the present which is where the bulk of our life should exist. I think 70% present, 20% future and 10% past is closer to optimal. All positive of course.

  • Reply Maggie N October 15, 2013 at 9:37 pm

    if you want to read something really interesting then read about the extremely controversial experiment that Zimbardo led called the Stanford prison experiment

  • Reply LACHLAN October 25, 2013 at 11:27 am

    This is the full length lecture; Prof. Philip Zimbardo: „The Secret Power of Time…"

  • Reply KNO BOI November 8, 2013 at 8:37 am

    Great work thanks……
    Im not crazy.
    See more on [email protected]
    [email protected]

  • Reply nonchalantd November 30, 2013 at 6:07 pm

    This was great, but I wish it was at least a half hour long.

  • Reply Why Not Now April 18, 2014 at 7:06 pm

    What a talk!

  • Reply Pippes September 28, 2014 at 7:42 am

    Zimbardo is one of the best modern day psychologists

  • Reply Rob P November 15, 2014 at 9:41 pm

    He wasted no time on his presentaiton

  • Reply Daniel Kim December 14, 2014 at 4:57 pm

    excellent presentation.

  • Reply bluebird March 5, 2015 at 7:45 pm

    this felt extremely rushed, I'm guessing he wasn't given enough time to do the talk, but he still wanted it to contain everything. But there were some really powerful thoughts in there!

  • Reply Fireball Fitness170 October 4, 2016 at 10:26 pm

    5:59…curing vets PTSD with time metaphors… many troubles could be understood by understanding your time perspective and that others…

  • Reply Jovan Davidovic November 4, 2016 at 3:36 pm

    Amazing speech

  • Reply chris ward December 24, 2016 at 9:37 am

    And of course no research to back up 1 word he says. Just a pet theory that any Joe off the street would be ridiculed for had he given the same talk

  • Reply Paul TheSkeptic May 22, 2017 at 10:57 pm

    What if the kid wasn't all that into eating a bunch of marshmallows? If they just wanted one it could be more logical to not wait.

  • Reply L'éclectique November 28, 2018 at 5:21 pm

    It was a brutal end. I could have listened to him for twenty more minutes.

  • Reply Netta Kanoho November 1, 2019 at 7:20 pm

    Hey guys: Thanks for sharing this video. I've used it in a post on my blog, LIFE-BUILT POEMS: Living Out Loud.

    Here's the link:

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