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Personality type

August 30, 2019


Personality type refers to the psychological
classification of different types of individuals. Personality types are sometimes distinguished
from personality traits, with the latter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioral tendencies. Types are sometimes said to involve qualitative
differences between people, whereas traits might be construed as quantitative differences. According to type theories, for example, introverts
and extraverts are two fundamentally different categories of people. According to trait theories, introversion
and extraversion are part of a continuous dimension, with many people in the middle. Clinically effective personality typologies
Effective personality typologies reveal and increase knowledge and understanding of individuals,
as opposed to diminishing knowledge and understanding as occurs in the case of stereotyping. Effective typologies also allow for increased
ability to predict clinically relevant information about people and to develop effective treatment
strategies. There is an extensive literature on the topic
of classifying the various types of human temperament and an equally extensive literature
on personality traits or domains. These classification systems attempt to describe
normal temperament and personality and emphasize the predominant features of different temperament
and personality types; they are largely the province of the discipline of psychology. Personality disorders, on the other hand,
reflect the work of psychiatry, a medical specialty, and are disease-oriented. They are classified in the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual a product of the American Psychiatric Association. Types vs. traits
The term type has not been used consistently in psychology and has become the source of
some confusion. Furthermore, because personality test scores
usually fall on a bell curve rather than in distinct categories, personality type theories
have received considerable criticism among psychometric researchers. One study that directly compared a “type”
instrument to a “trait” instrument found that the trait measure was a better predictor
of personality disorders. Because of these problems, personality type
theories have fallen out of favor in psychology. Most researchers now believe that it is impossible
to explain the diversity of human personality with a small number of discrete types. They recommend trait models instead, such
as the five factor model. Type theories An early form of personality type theory was
the Four Temperaments system of Galen, based on the four humours model of Hippocrates;
an extended Five Temperaments system based on the classical theory was published in 1958. One example of personality types is Type A
and Type B personality theory. According to this theory, impatient, achievement-oriented
people are classified as Type A, whereas easy-going, relaxed individuals are designated as Type
B. The theory originally suggested that Type A individuals were more at risk for coronary
heart disease, but this claim has not been supported by empirical research. There has been a study to prove that people
with Type A personalities are more likely to develop personality disorders whereas Type
B personalities are more likely to become alcoholics. Developmental psychologist Jerome Kagan is
a prominent advocate of type theory. He suggests that shy, withdrawn children are
best viewed as having an inhibited temperament, which is qualitatively different from that
of other children. As a matter of convenience, trait theorists
sometimes use the term type to describe someone who scores exceptionally high or low on a
particular personality trait. Hans Eysenck refers to superordinate personality
factors as types, and more specific associated traits as traits. Several pop psychology theories rely on the
idea of distinctively different types of people. Carl Jung
One of the more influential ideas originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung as published
in the book Psychological Types. The original German language edition, Psychologische
Typen, was first published by Rascher Verlag, Zurich in 1921. Typologies such as Socionics, the MBTI assessment,
and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter have roots in Jungian philosophy. Jung’s interest in typology grew from his
desire to reconcile the theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, and to define how
his own perspective differed from theirs. Jung wrote, “In attempting to answer this
question, I came across the problem of types; for it is one’s psychological type which from
the outset determines and limits a person’s judgment.” He concluded that Freud’s theory was extraverted
and Adler’s introverted. Jung became convinced that acrimony between
the Adlerian and Freudian camps was due to this unrecognized existence of different fundamental
psychological attitudes, which led Jung “to conceive the two controversial theories of
neurosis as manifestations of a type-antagonism.” Four functions of consciousness
In the book Jung categorized people into primary types of psychological function. Jung proposed the existence of two dichotomous
pairs of cognitive functions: The “rational” functions: thinking and
feeling The “irrational” functions: sensing and
intuition Jung went on to suggest that these functions
are expressed in either an introverted or extraverted form. Jung proposed four main functions of consciousness:
Two perceiving functions: Sensation and Intuition Two judging functions: Thinking and Feeling
According to Jung, the psyche is an apparatus for adaptation and orientation, and consists
of a number of different psychic functions. Among these he distinguishes four basic functions:
sensation—perception by means of the sense organs;
intuition—perceiving in unconscious way or perception of unconscious contents. thinking—function of intellectual cognition;
the forming of logical conclusions; feeling—function of subjective estimation;
Thinking and feeling functions are rational, while sensation and intuition are nonrational. According to Jung, rationality consists of
figurative thoughts, feelings or actions with reason — a point of view based on objective
value, which is set by practical experience. Nonrationality is not based in reason. Jung notes that elementary facts are also
nonrational, not because they are illogical but because, as thoughts, they are not judgments. Attitudes: Extraversion and Introversion
Analytical psychology distinguishes several psychological types or temperaments. Extravert
Introvert Extraversion means “outward-turning” and
introversion means “inward-turning.” These specific definitions vary somewhat from
the popular usage of the words. The preferences for extraversion and introversion
are often called as attitudes. Each of the cognitive functions can operate
in the external world of behavior, action, people, and things or the internal world of
ideas and reflection. People who prefer extraversion draw energy
from action: they tend to act, then reflect, then act further. If they are inactive, their motivation tends
to decline. To rebuild their energy, extraverts need breaks
from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion
expend energy through action: they prefer to reflect, then act, then reflect again. To rebuild their energy, introverts need quiet
time alone, away from activity. The extravert’s flow is directed outward toward
people and objects, and the introvert’s is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts
and introverts include the following: Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts
are thought oriented. Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence,
while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence. Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction,
while introverts prefer more substantial interaction. Extraverts recharge and get their energy from
spending time with people, while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending
time alone. The attitude type could be thought of as the
flow of libido. The functions are modified by two main attitude
types: extraversion and introversion. In any person, the degree of introversion
or extraversion of one function can be quite different from that of another function. Four functions: sensation, intuition, thinking,
feeling Jung identified two pairs of psychological
functions: The two perceiving functions, sensation and
intuition The two judging functions, thinking and feeling
Sensation and intuition are the information-gathering functions. They describe how new information is understood
and interpreted. Individuals who prefer the sensation function
are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete:
that is, information that can be understood by the five senses. They tend to distrust hunches, which seem
to come “out of nowhere.” They prefer to look for details and facts. For them, the meaning is in the data. On the other hand, those who prefer the intuition
function tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be
associated with other information. They may be more interested in future possibilities. They tend to trust those flashes of insight
that seem to bubble up from the unconscious mind. The meaning is in how the data relates to
the pattern or theory. Thinking and feeling are the decision-making
functions. The thinking and feeling functions are both
used to make rational decisions, based on the data received from their information-gathering
functions. Those who prefer the thinking function tend
to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable,
logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer the feeling function tend
to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it “from
the inside” and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony,
consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved. As noted already, people who prefer the thinking
function do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, “think better” than their feeling
counterparts; the opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions. Similarly, those who prefer the feeling function
do not necessarily have “better” emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts. Dominant function
All four functions are used at different times depending on the circumstances. However, one of the four functions is generally
used more dominantly and proficiently than the other three, in a more conscious and confident
way. According to Jung the dominant function is
supported by two auxiliary functions. The fourth and least conscious function is
always the opposite of the dominant function. Jung called this the “inferior function” and
Myers sometimes also called it the “shadow”. Jung’s typological model regards psychological
type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop,
certain preferred ways of thinking and acting. These psychological differences are sorted
into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting eight possible psychological
types. People tend to find using their opposite psychological
preferences more difficult, even if they can become more proficient with practice and development. The four functions operate in conjunction
with the attitudes. Each function is used in either an extraverted
or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted
intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function
is introverted intuition. The eight psychological types are as follows:
Extraverted sensation Introverted sensation
Extraverted intuition Introverted intuition
Extraverted thinking Introverted thinking
Extraverted feeling Introverted feeling
Jung theorized that the dominant function characterizes consciousness, while its opposite
is repressed and characterizes unconscious behavior. Generally, we tend to favor our most developed
dominant function, while we can broaden our personality by developing the others. Related to this, Jung noted that the unconscious
often tends to reveal itself most easily through a person’s least developed inferior function. The encounter with the unconscious and development
of the underdeveloped functions thus tend to progress together. When the unconscious inferior functions fail
to develop, imbalance results. In Psychological Types, Jung describes in
detail the effects of tensions between the complexes associated with the dominant and
inferior differentiating functions in highly one-sided individuals. Personality types and worrying
The relationship between worry – the tendency of one’s thoughts and mental images to revolve
around and create negative emotions, and the experience of a frequent level of fear – and
Jung’s model of psychological types has been the subject of recent studies. In particular, correlational analysis has
shown that the tendency to worry is significantly related to Jung’s Introversion and Feeling
dimensions. Similarly, worry has shown robust correlations
with shyness and fear of social situations. The worrier’s tendency to be fearful of social
situations might make them appear more withdrawn. Jung’s model suggests that the superordinate
dimension of personality is introversion and extraversion. Introverts are likely to relate to the external
world by listening, reflecting, being reserved, and having focused interests. Extraverts on the other hand, are adaptable
and in tune with the external world. They prefer interacting with the outer world
by talking, actively participating, being sociable, expressive, and having a variety
of interests. Jung also identified two other dimensions
of personality: Intuition – Sensing and Thinking – Feeling. Sensing types tend to focus on the reality
of present situations, pay close attention to detail, and are concerned with practicalities. Intuitive types focus on envisioning a wide
range of possibilities to a situation and favor ideas, concepts, and theories over data. Individuals who score higher on intuition
also score higher on general. Thinking types use objective and logical reasoning
in making their decisions, are more likely to analyze stimuli in a logical and detached
manner, be more emotionally stable, and score higher on intelligence. Feeling types make judgments based on subjective
and personal values. In interpersonal decision-making, feeling
types tend to emphasize compromise to ensure a beneficial solution for everyone. They also tend to be somewhat more neurotic
than thinking types. The worrier’s tendency to experience a fearful
affect, could be manifested in Jung’s feeling type. See also
General overview: Personality
Personality psychology Personality tests
Psychological typologies Trait theory
Trait Leadership Three modern theories closely associated with
Jung’s personality types: Keirsey Temperament Sorter
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Socionics
Other theories: 16 Personality Factors
Big Five personality traits DISC assessment
Enneagram of Personality Eysenck’s three factor model
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Five Temperaments
Four Temperaments Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation
HEXACO model of personality structure Humorism
Personal Style Indicator Type A and Type B personality theory
Humanistic type Holland Codes
References Further reading
Jung, C.G.. Psychological Types, Collected Works, Volume
6, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01813-8. Jung, C.G.. Two Essays on Analytical Psychology, Collected
Works, Volume 7, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01782-4. Jung, C.G.. Memories, Dreams, Reflections,
New York, N.Y.: Vantage Books. ISBN 0-679-72395-1.

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