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Lecture – 2 Project Management: An Overview

August 11, 2019

We are going to begin this course on project
management today. I am going to give you an overview of project management in this introductory
lecture. I think you are all familiar with the notion of a project. During your course
curriculum you have done a number of projects. At home you have probably been exposed to
a variety of projects that you have undertaken on behalf of the family. But in this course
we are going to look at projects in a more systematic fashion and are to going to identify
the major features of a project and what exactly we would be doing. Let us start by dealing
with what a project is. A very broad definition of a project is that
it is an undertaking or a venture to accomplish some goal or objective. You see this is a
very general definition and this definition is capable of encompassing a wide variety
of projects. You can see that it is the broad objective goal which tries to subsequently
define what a project is all about. Let us comment on the structure of a project. A project
can be viewed as a set of interrelated jobs whose accomplishments lead to the accomplishment
through the completion of the project. Essentially speaking, although here we talked about the
basic objective of a project, the composition or the structure of a project includes that
it is composed of a variety of jobs and these jobs are interrelated and the completion of
these jobs leads to the completion of the project. Since these jobs are the constituents
of a project, we must understand what these jobs or activities really are. When you view
these jobs or activities you must remember that these jobs or activities consume time
and resources and are governed by precedence relations. We have tried to look at a project from three
different angles. We have tried to identify the objective of a project, the constituents
of a project and we have tried to look at the basic composition of these jobs or activities
which are very important because they are the ones which consume time and resources
and are actually responsible for project completion. Let us now try to look at some examples of
projects so that you can get an idea of different kinds of projects and the features. There
could be a variety of projects. We shall look at some examples. We can talk of projects
in the local neighborhood. We could talk about organizational projects and we could also
talk about national projects, -projects done by a particular nation, projects done by a
government and we could also talk about projects at a global level. Let us try to look at some examples of these.
For instance let us try to identify some personal projects. All of you are students and are
therefore very familiar with this notion of preparing for an examination. Preparing for
an examination can be considered a very important project in itself. It could be preparation
for the JEE or the GRE or GATE or an IAS examination. All that this involves is to undergo a variety
of tasks and activities in a systematic fashion and all those activities together are responsible
for this successful completion of the examination. Another example at a personal level would
be writing a book. This is also an activity which per se would involve a large number
of activities and this is therefore an example of a personal project. At a more personal
level even getting dressed is a project because there are a number of clothes you have to
wear and there is a specific preference among the clothes that you have got to wear. You
got to wear your underclothes before you wear your shirts and trousers and other things.
Another example could be a wedding in the house. Whenever a wedding takes place in the
family a large number of jobs have to be accomplished. Everyone is busy with an activity for the
accomplishment of the project. Organizing a birthday function is a small version of
a wedding where a large number of activities are involved too. Organizing a family vacation
is again an example of a project at a personal level. Let us now try to look at projects in the
local neighborhood. Organizing a school function is a project which could be taking place in
your local neighborhood. Cleanliness drive within your locality where you probably collect
donations from all the residence of the colony is again a project. Construction of clubs
for playing badminton or going for swimming, within a locality is again instances of projects
in the local neighborhood. Let us now look at some organizational projects.
Projects can be carried out by the organizations; one example could be construction of a building
or a construction of a highway. This is an example of a project that might be undertaken
by any organization. Planning and launching a new product by any organization which would
involve research and development, marketing, development, production and subsequently selling
the product are all examples of project. A turnaround in a refinery is a major aspect
because you would not like the refinery to be closed for a long period of time. You have to make sure that all the maintenance
activities required for the refinery are done as soon as possible. There are precedence
restrictions for these and you can think of a turnaround in the refinery as an example
of an organization project. Some examples of national projects are launching a new satellite
by ISRO, a literacy campaign or a campaign to eradicate poverty by the government. Preparation
of the annual budget by the government is again a major project. We have to consult with various sections of
society. They have to talk to various entrepreneurs. They have to set their own objectives and
then do this exercise every year. This again is a major project. A major national project
can be a global project that is organizing peace missions, for example, Kofi Amoah is
currently trying to undertake this project ( between Iraq and United States). You have
to organize these kinds of projects and the United Nations is organizing a number of such
projects the same time. Space exploration is again an instance of a global project.
I mean most space explorations need not necessarily be done by only the United States or only
by Russia. There could be collaborative ventures and they are very massive major projects like
Randebu in space of certain vehicles and carrying out certain repairs of space vehicles. These
are again examples of global projects which are carried out at that level and environment
protection is again an example of a situation where either individual countries or countries
together in a group could collaborate to make sure that the ozone layer is disturbed. These are all instances of projects which
are done at global level. What we have seen is that projects could have a tremendous variety.
They could have a small sized project to a large size project. We have seen various types
of examples of projects and what we would like to therefore understand is this discipline
of project management that we talked about. What are the features of projects that we
think are common to all projects and how do we use those features for planning, leading
and controlling various kinds of projects. Now from these examples, let us try to identify
some features which are common to all kinds of projects. You can see for instance that
all these projects are the examples we talked about. All of them could be considered as
a well defined collection of job. Of course, the set of jobs would be different from one
project to the other. Each project is nothing but a collection of different jobs to be done. That is the most interesting thing and it
is the management of this portfolio of jobs which really is the most significant thing
in a project. Then most projects have this feature where they are generally non repetitive
and it is a onetime effort. I think this is important for us to understand because projects
are different from routine production. If you talk about mass production systems or
batch production systems, their production is going on constantly and you are producing
one good after another of a similar kind. The maruthi factory is producing identical
maruthi cars all through. But a project is essentially a onetime venture. Setting up
a factory for maruthi is a project, once the factory is setup and handed over to the company,
it is going into routine production. Remember that projects are generally non-repetitive
and it is a onetime effort. Even if projects are similar, if I am constructing a fly over
here in Nehru place another fly over at the meroli road crossing. There would be differences
in terms of soil testing in terms of the detailed stresses which are built up. The structural
design could be different. Though these projects could be similar, no two projects even of
a similar kind are generally identical and one has to keep this in mind. The project
management is essentially one activity which tries to manage this uniqueness of a project.
That means for every project which is unique, we try to manage it in its own way and the
project management gives us a set of tools by which this can be done. These jobs which
we are talking about are essentially interrelated through precedence. I think the notion of
precedence is very common and generally well understood. For instance you cannot build
though the brick work for a house until the foundation has been completed. Doing the foundations
becomes a predecessor for doing the subsequent brickwork. Similarly in all, projects are
interrelated through precedence and precedence is an important aspect in trying to plan project
execution. Otherwise jobs are independent. Although the
jobs are related by precedence, when we talk about implementing a project, the individual
jobs, once the precedence restrictions are met could be done at our will. For instance
I could do the digging for the foundations and there is no time lag which is definitely
required. There is an independence of job. Besides the underlying features the individual
jobs consume both time and resources. This is important to mention and because these
jobs are the constituents of the project which have to be managed therefore we have to be
careful about the individual time and resources. In fact these jobs or activities are the micro
cost centre in a project. If you have to control your costs, your durations, meet the deadlines,
then you got to make sure that these individual jobs are done as well as possible. It is like
trying to say, if you want to get a very good score in your degree, you want to get a very
good CGPI. You must try to do well in all the courses because the courses are the constituents
of the degree. Same way the jobs are the constituents of the project. Another important aspect to be born in mind
about these jobs is that there is a tremendous amount of coordination needed between individuals
and organizations as far as the project is concerned. This coordination is required because
invariably these jobs could be done by different individuals. They could be subcontracted to
different agents. For instance in a thermal power plant, the turbines could be made by
one particular agency. The electrical circuitry can be made by another agency. When you talk
of managing the project, all these individual jobs have to be completed before the whole
project is complete. There is a great need for coordination between the various individuals
and agencies handling different kinds of projects and this is a skill which is very important
when one is trying to deal with projects. One of the key features in project management
is really the fact that there is a constant pressure of conformance to time cost and performance
goals. Projects have to be done in time. They have to be done within the cost, as minimum
a cost as possible and have to make sure that all the specifications which are required
for the completion of the individual activities are adhered to. Basically when one is trying
to monitor the execution of a project, one must ensure that time cost and performance
are actually monitored and in fact when you are talking about project implementation,
we are primarily talking about monitoring and control of time and cost as well as the
performance. We are trying to measure the performance of a project with regard to time
cost and performance goals. Whether it is a personal project or an organizational
project, you find these components or these features relevant. Let us look at a project
in terms of its life cycle. I think you are all aware of the phenomenon of life cycle.
A project is something that is done to accomplish a goal, to accomplish an objective. A project
is like; I want to go from a current state to desired state. Suppose I am currently here,
this is my current state. You can see that a project is nothing but a path that takes
you from the current state to the desired state and incidentally there could be many
such projects possible which would possibly be able to go from the current state to the
desired state. To give you an example, suppose I am interested in reducing the vehicular
pollution in Delhi, or in any big city, there could be a number of measures that the government
or any enforcing agency could think of. There would be a severe check on the emission performance
of individual vehicles that is project p1. There could be another project for instance
which might say that we ban the entry of new diesel vehicles and let us say call that project
p2. A third project might be that, we want to increase the greenery in the city. How
do we increase the greenery in the city? Afforestation drive could be the third kind of project.
Each of these projects could be identified and they could either be competing with each
other or whatever they are but they could all be viewed as nothing but paths to achieve
an objective. How do you define your projects is again an
exercise, which has to be done depending upon the economics, depending upon the resources
that are at your disposal and you should be able to do this kind of exercise. Each of
these projects is basically a temporary thing. It is like something which will transport
you from here to here and once your journey is over the project is over. So that is the
life of every project. It is conceived, it is born and subsequently it is executed and
once it is executed the machine is accomplished, the project dies. In that sense it is like
you can compare it do a journey. It has a lifecycle.
If you look at the life cycle of a typical project, the first and the most important
stage in the life of a project is the selection of the project. We took up some examples just now of different
projects which could possibly be conceived and ultimately you take one particular project
which you would like to implement. The next stage would be the stage of project planning.
Planning a project so that whatever you had targeted to achieve, can be achieved actually
and this project planning is actually the major junk of project management. What does
this project planning involve? It involves a number of things. For instance the first
thing that it involves is determining the scope of work and then developing a network
to represent all the activities. We develop the scope of work, what all has to be done,
each of the 3 projects which we just talked about for vehicular pollution. You have to
define exactly as to what is going to be your target area.
How are you exactly going to do the work? You define the scope of work and once the
scope of work is defined, you identify which are the individual jobs and you develop a
network for doing this. The next basic activity in project planning is what they call basic
scheduling. We will talk about this in greater detail later. But basic scheduling is intended
to determine essentially the time schedule. When should what activity be done? Are they
flexible in doing various activities? There are issues of time, cost, tradeoffs i.e.,
a project can normally be completed within a year. Can we do it in 9 months instead?
May be putting in more resources, more money, these kinds of issues are answered in time
cost tradeoffs. A very vital issue this is, because quite
often you might be interested in shortening projects by investing more money if it is
worthwhile to do so. We can then talk about the various resource considerations in projects
like manpower and availability of machines and various other resources required for doing
that project. So, essentially project planning deals with these. Once a plan is made, the
next thing is project implementation which is called the ‘third phase of the project
life cycle’ where the project is actually implemented. It involves basically expenditure
of resources doing work at site coordinating between various people and agencies and things
of this kind and after the project is implemented, the last stage would be project completion
and audit. Once the project has been completed successfully
you would like to document your experiences and you might want to do an audit to find,
so that you might even use this information as a data bank for planning future projects.
So this constitutes essentially the life cycle of a project. Now let us look at each of these
stages in little greater detail because that is exactly the job of project management.
During this course of project management, we will be looking at look at for instance
project selection which is the first phase. We have already talked about project selection.
It essentially involves three things. They are Project identification i.e., identification
of new projects, their appraisals and finally the selection of the best project. Project
identification really involves that anybody who is interested in identifying a new project
should be receptive to new ideas. It is very important because the idea for a new project
come from anywhere. It could come from the marketing people, it could come from top management,
it could come from the production people or from a consumer who is dealing with your project
and is therefore aware of the problems that you are facing. You should have a vision of
future growth. That is very important because it is a problem. It is something like dreaming
into the future to find out exactly what you are going to do. So vision of future growth
is very important. You should be clear about your long term objectives. If you are in the
steel industry you would like to stay within the steel industry or would you like to diversify
into the electronic sector or would you like to do something else? These kinds of issues
become very important. A SWOT analysis, strength, weakness, opportunities
and threat analysis can be undertaken to find out my current weaknesses, strengths that
I have accumulated over the years, opportunities which the market is offering me now and the
threats. A systematic analysis of this will help you identify the right projects. Project
identification is really very important and of course on the basis of this you would be
able to do some preliminary project analysis. Basically this project analysis will help
you in ultimately identifying which out of the ten or twenty odd projects that you have
identified you should be pursuing in greater detail. After the project identification the next
phase is the phase of project appraisal. Project appraisal is generally initiated with a market
appraisal. It helps in finding out what the market is, what are the needs of the market
and what is the scope for the new product. Market appraisal is followed by a technical
appraisal. Technical appraisal is followed by a typically financial appraisal of the
project and financial appraisal is followed by any economic appraisal which talks of the
broader issues and an ecological appraisal dealing about how this would affect the environment.
All these appraisals are required before you make a feasibility report. A feasibility report considers all these issues
prior to project adoption. So a project feasibility report which is a very important document
actually identifies how the project is, why the project is selected, what is the profitability
and things of this nature is actually a document which is talking about the various kinds of
project appraisals so that a proper decision on project selection could be made. Let us
look at some of the issues involved in various appraisals. In a market appraisal, what is
the aggregate future demand of the product? The total demand for tyre, (if you are talking
about entering the tyre market), what is likely to be your market share? This is again an
estimate which would have to be made and what is the state of the current and the future
competition in the area? We have to access these things. What is the location and accessibility of
consumers? You have a consumer who is located at one particular location or you have a consumer
who is spread out geographically over a whole region because an understanding of this is
going to be very important because consumers have to be targeted, located and accessed
for not only their opinion but even ultimately the product has to go to them. What is the
current technological scenario and how long does obsolescence last? I mean when does obsolescence
take place? For instance in the electronic sector, obsolescence rates are very high.
You have newer models of the product in electronics or computers coming up in less than 3 months
and 6 months whereas if you talk about capital machinery and so on, the rate of obsolescence
is relatively smaller. These issues are important when you are trying to talk about product.
What are the possible pricing options? These are some of the major issues that one is likely
to handle, like to talk about when one is talking about a market appraisal. Similarly a technical appraisal will deal
about aspects concerning the engineering, locations, size and the production process.
A financial appraisal would deal about cash flows over time, profitability of the product
breakeven point, net present value, the internal rate of return, the payback period and the
risk. All these together would give us an indication of the financial health of the
project. Now if you compare this with the economic
appraisal of a project, an economic appraisal incidentally would focus about issues that
are of greater concern to the society at large, the socio-economic benefits. We would talk
about the benefits and costs not necessarily in monetary terms but in terms of their shadow
prices and by shadow prices really I mean for instance, if you have a hydroelectric
project and you are utilizing land, it will probably have to be acquired from society.
Medha Patkar for instance is making a huge issue of this particular Narmada dam and the
whole issue is really that if a proper socioeconomic analysis is carried out, you would probably
be able to find that what would be the true benefits per hectare of land which is actually
taken up from the villagers and you should take up this project only when the benefits
warrant that this particular investment in resources is made is in terms of shadow prices.
So what is the effect on distribution of income and society? What are the level of savings
and investments in society? These kinds of issues are important. Self sufficiency, employment and social order
are also important. These are also important. If I setup a factory for manufacturing tyres,
I am actually generating avenues for employment for people in that area. These are the kinds
of issues which come up when you are talking about a broad economic appraisal of any project.
When for instance national project or a global project is being considered, these issues
would become very relevant. Issues pertaining to the environment are assuming greater and
greater importance so an ecological appraisal of projects is also very important. We should
assess as to what is the extent of environmental damage that is likely to come about by setting
up this particular project. What is this damage to the quality of air to the quality of water?
Now is it going to contribute to noise levels and to other measures as far as the environment
is concerned? So there could be legislation on a number
of these factors that this is the level of air permitted or the level of carbon monoxide
permitted and various other pollutants in the air permitted. But you have to be careful.
The essence really is that you got to be concerned and be careful about any environmental damage
and you have to be thinking about taking restoration measures and the kind of costs that are involved
in restoration. If you are going to dirty the air or you are going to dirty the adjoining
rivers, you probably have to make sure that you do a filtration setup, a filtration plant
to clean up the remaining thing. So there is a cost of restoration of the quality of
environmental life. There are also some issues pertaining to an appraisal. We have talked broadly about some of these
major issues involved in the appraisal of a project which involves various functions.
Once a project is appraised or projects are appraised, how do we select a project? We
finally come to this stage of project selection, which is in fact the first stage where the
birth of the project has taken place. Some of the criteria which are important in project
selection are the investment, the rate of return, risk, likely profit payback and issues
like similarity to existing business. This is important because you may want to
utilize the experience that you have gained in particular profession in setting up or
in propagating your new project. What is the expected life of this project? What kinds
of flexibilities does it afford to you? What is the environmental impact? You have talked
about these issues. What is the status of competition? Conceptually,
when we talk about these issues there are a multiple criteria. Actually speaking, the
problem is one of multi criteria evaluation, so conceptually we can say that there are
a number of projects. Let us say P1, P2 and so on up to PM. There are M projects which
we have identified and we want to weigh them on a variety of criteria which we just discussed.
C1, C2 and so on up to CN and what you could possibly be doing is you could probably be
assigning greater weights to these criteria. We have a weights W1 W2 and so on up to W¬N
to these individual criteria and what we would like to do is that each of these projects
would be evaluated on each of these criteria and given some score on each of these criteria
and then depending upon the weightages which are there for these individual criteria, we
could work out a consolidated score for each of the projects. S1 is a score for the project.
S2 is a score for the second project and SM is a score for the Mth project. A variety of means are available for doing
this but remember that this is very much like the process of assigning marks to students
in a university. For instance you are the candidate and each one of you undergoes various
courses. These courses have certain weightages. Your performance in each of these courses
is ultimately combined to give an overall score and therefore we can rank the individual
students in the university. We are essentially trying to use similar types of concepts in
trying to rank the various projects. So multi criteria evaluation of projects can be done
in this particular way, using a decision matrix approach. There are various other techniques like topses
like simple additive weighting or hierarchical additive weighting which can be utilized for
carrying out this kind of analysis. Let us now come to the second phase of the project
which is project planning. Project planning involves forming a project team with a leader,
defining the scope and terms of reference of the work, the work breakdown structure,
developing the work breakdown structure. Doing basic scheduling, time cost tradeoffs and
subsequently resource considerations. This is the gamete of project planning. Let
us look at these activities in greater detail. Basic scheduling for instance talks about
project representation as a network, estimation of activity durations, doing a forward and
backward pass and ultimately determining the critical path and the floats and this critical
path is a v curve which is used for selective control and it identifies the minimum possible
project duration. In that sense this provides very useful guidelines
to management, how the project is to be done. In time costs tradeoff for instance, our concern
is that we are trying to identify the flexibility in activity durations. We talk about normal
and crash activity durations. There could be various kinds of relationships, linear,
non-linear, discontinuous, discrete time-cost relationships and the objective is to discover
ultimately the project-cost duration efficient frontier and from here to identify the total
project cost consisting of both the direct and indirect cost. There are a number of procedures available
for doing this. I would like to just talk about some aspects of resources. We can talk
about resource aggregation which talks about determining the project schedule, resource
consumption profile for each resource and provisioning of resources over time. Basically aggregating all the resources, so
that you know what the total resource requirement is and then sources of leveling these resources.
By shifting the jobs which are slacked to obtain a balanced resource profile, keeping
the project duration fixed and there are a variety of hand and computer procedures available
which we will be discussing as we go along in this particular course. Limited resource allocation is another thing
which is extremely important, which talks about the minimum duration schedule satisfying
the limited availability of resources. This might involve in delaying some critical jobs
to keep the resource profile within the available limits and there is again a number of hand
and computer procedures are available for doing this. Here is a pictorial representation of the
process. In resource aggregation we are simply interested in finding out what is going to
be the manner in which resources are utilized over time. In resource leveling, we are not
increasing the project duration but we are trying to shift some jobs so that this becomes
more leveled. We might have a certain limited availability of resources and this might be
violating that limited availability. So we might have to delay some of the jobs so that
all this resource peaks come within the limited availability. This is what we mean by limited
resource allocation where the project duration tends to increase a little beyond the critical
path duration but the objective is to keep this increased to the minimum. Now when one talks about project implementation,
which is the next major phase, the issues involved here are organizing your team and
work, clear cost time performance goals, project monitoring with regard to cost value of work
and time and project control. These are some of the major issues when one talks about project
implementation. In project completion, issues are disbanding of the project team. The job
is done. So, people go to their respective places or respective units, handing over the
project to the user, accounting and report writing and learning from the experience. These are some of the issues which are important
when you are talking about project completion. So the important thing to bear in mind here
is that if any project which is completed can face a number of problems. Typically these
problems can be at the organizational level, the behavioral level, financial problems,
legal problems, and engineering problems. This is followed by problems at site of construction
or installation of a particular machine, there could be problems of site evacuation or development
of the site, labor unrest or the unavailability of labor, non availability of resources, weather
conditions or adhoc on the spot improvisations. I think this is a particular feature of project
that you do not know what exactly is in store for you. You have to go ahead with these things
kinds of improvisations. Besides these typical problems, human issues in project management
are of great concern. What is actually required is working together in teams, proper communication,
conflict management, leadership and motivation. You should have a leader who is able to motivate
you, the proper organizational structure. It is said that matrix organizations are the
best organizations for projects. We will see what is so special about matrix organizations
and selection of the project manager. These are important issues. Finally I just
like to talk before I close, about issues in computers in project management. Computers
have come up in a big way. So we should know exactly their primary use in project management.
Computers are used primarily for easy sorting and listing of activities. This is a very
great skill because if you have let us say 5000 activities or jobs, you can prepare lists,
either department wise or specialty wise or according to the times at which the activities
are to be undertaken. This is a great skill. So sorting and listing of activities is a
great inconvenience. The next would be easy updation and new listings of project progress
over the life cycle. You do not have to draw the project network only once. As the project
progresses, various activities are completed and you have got to do this again and again.
This is very convenient and certain advanced analyses like time cost tradeoffs and source
considerations like source leveling and resource allocation are practical only with computer
programs and there are many commercially available packages. MS project is one example. Of course there
are other examples like hardwood project manager, primavera and so on which are commercially
available for doing this. So computers are in fact a blessing to project management because
they help in effective implementation of the project. So let us try to see what we have
tried to do in this particular project. Let us try to summarize what we have learnt in
this lecture. The first introductory is an overview, we have seen definition of a project
and we have seen examples of different kinds of projects. You understand the diversity
of projects, and you know what their common features are. We have tried to identify key
features of projects. Some of these key features are important because they define major elements
on which project management is based. We have talked about the life cycle of a project. The various phases in the life cycles starting
from project selection, project planning, project scheduling, project implementation
and project completion and the kinds of problem which crops up at these individual stages.
Finally we have tried to look at some typical project problems, problems associated with
projects. We have seen that the problems could be very varied in their content starting from
human to technical to behavioral problems. We have identified some of the human issues
in project management, like the importance of working in team. Finally we have seen how
computers help in project management, so I hope this helped you. If you have any questions,
you are welcome to ask. Thank You!

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  • Reply abi titmus September 5, 2008 at 8:13 pm

    sisa fyi even in UK professors do that and people dont make a fuss about it

    Arun is very good

  • Reply Xknight 4Ever February 14, 2009 at 5:16 pm

    Thank you Prof. Anun. Im starting to work as project manager for Tata consultancy. This videos are helping me a lot to understand the basic concepts of Project Management. Please keep posting new videos. I have sent this link to my peers to continuing studying Project Management Fundamentals

  • Reply Kamal .Dahir March 10, 2011 at 8:00 am

    Helpful lecture… thnx 4 sharing ur knowledge..

  • Reply Ulibamar May 2, 2011 at 7:38 pm

    Thanks for sharing.

  • Reply SLAP Company August 10, 2011 at 1:18 am

    Could you be emotionally detached at work and not know it? Sure, if you’re detached. There’s a party in your head and you’re not invited. slapCompany

  • Reply Lenny Lam October 25, 2011 at 11:08 am

    Thanks. He is great!

  • Reply Jamila Crockett December 10, 2011 at 5:38 pm

    I LOVE This:))) Thank you for sharing!

  • Reply Jamila Crockett December 10, 2011 at 5:41 pm

    I am learning a lot about India culture also. A wedding in a house? A cleanliness drive? wow…interesting. What is a cleanliness drive?

  • Reply Viswanathan Arunachalam December 15, 2011 at 11:55 am

    Excellent.Thanks for sharing 🙂

  • Reply Giovanni Ramundi April 24, 2012 at 11:16 am

    Thanks for sharing your knowledge about projects theory.

  • Reply Omprakash Kumar July 19, 2012 at 5:35 pm

    thanks for clear speaking teaching..also help for AMIE student for engineering management subject

  • Reply Molla Al Amin August 23, 2012 at 7:39 pm

    most welcome

  • Reply james mologosho January 20, 2013 at 4:46 am

    i real like to learn much about Indian culture

  • Reply Erin Huang April 22, 2013 at 10:45 pm

    isnt wearing cloth more operational than a project, since its not unique, doesn't have a specific time frame ( happens everyday).

  • Reply vijayaratnam purushowththaman May 10, 2013 at 1:01 am

    Good work!!:D

  • Reply Rohit Sagar October 9, 2013 at 12:50 pm

    Is there any way to get those handout slides?

  • Reply Christopher A. October 26, 2013 at 1:18 am

    Thank you for the lecture, i've learnt a lot.

  • Reply Krishna Prasad November 16, 2013 at 3:38 pm

    thank u uploader.

  • Reply Licetd Perez Fleming November 28, 2013 at 4:08 pm

    hey, guys I'm sorry my english is not perfect but what does he say in second "13:50"?

  • Reply vijay j August 26, 2014 at 5:22 pm

    Very helpful, praise worthy

  • Reply Jonathan Akisanmi November 3, 2015 at 2:21 pm

    What standard or underlining methodology has been conformed to or otherwise universally acceptable?

  • Reply dechasa hirpesa December 16, 2015 at 10:00 am

    Very helpful,

  • Reply Salman khan May 11, 2016 at 1:48 am

    thank u sir

  • Reply Diego Lynch May 27, 2016 at 4:31 pm


  • Reply Bidyut Kumer Balo July 19, 2016 at 4:06 pm


  • Reply chayan agarwal October 15, 2016 at 9:39 am

    Mai Pagal hu

  • Reply kuniyil sreehari November 21, 2016 at 1:14 pm


  • Reply abdikhaliq abdillaahi December 27, 2016 at 4:27 am

    Thank you sir,

  • Reply natinael berhane June 8, 2017 at 4:42 pm

    really very supportive to MBA students

  • Reply Kavalinaresh Kumar April 1, 2018 at 9:41 am

    super sir

  • Reply hi sada April 10, 2018 at 1:23 am

    thank you

  • Reply PMIS PMO May 29, 2018 at 5:24 am

  • Reply Vamshikrishna Narmula February 8, 2019 at 2:24 pm

    very good lecture sir …😙😙

  • Reply dynamo sploido February 12, 2019 at 8:40 am

    thanks for the lecture sir,its positive and understandable,i understand now

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