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Chapter 12 Personality (Introduction to Psychology)

October 12, 2019

Hello, we are on Chapter 12, which
covers personality. And if you remember in class, we defined personality as
relatively enduring and stable behavioral characteristics. The majority of class we
spent on reviewing the different series of personality, and in this video that will
be the focus as well. More specifically, I would like to review the Cycle Analytic
Theory of Personality and the Trait Theory, more specifically the Big Five Trait
Theory. Let’s go ahead and get started with the Cycle Analytic Theory. The founder
of that theory, as you may remember, is Sigmund Freud. We did learn about Sigmund
Freud and a little bit about his theory at the beginning of semester, so the good
news is that some of this material will be a review, refreshing old information. And
the keyword that we associated with Freud and the Cycle Analytic Theory—sometimes
also called Cycle Dynamic Theory in the textbook—is unconscious. That’s a very
useful keyword to keep in mind, the idea that we have the unconscious
mind, which basically consists of our urges feelings, desires, that are hidden from
our awareness, that we are basically unaware of. Freud’s Theory of
Personality is a structural theory, and it has three parts: the id, which
operates on the pleasure principle; the ego, which operates on the reality
principle; and the superego, which operates on the morality principle. The id
is basically “I want it and I want it now”— that kind of sense of urgent desires and
needs that we have in the moment. Ego is the part of our personality that
defines the demands and the constraints of reality, like “Perhaps not now, but
instead later,” etc. And finally, superego is the moral compass. That’s our values,
are moral principles, etc. What I believe you will find really helpful when you are
trying to learn this theory is to think of a specific example in which you are
clearly outlining what is the id, what is the ego, and what is the superego. Let’s
work with a specific example here. Let’s say that I’m waiting for class to
begin. I’ve got about 15 minutes left and I’ve got five dollars in my pocket, and
I’m thinking, “You know, I could go for some ice cream right now. I want ice
cream.” So that desire in the moment— that “I want ice cream”—would be my id
speaking. If I’m starting to think, though, that “This may not be the best time,
because it’s only 15 minutes before class and I should really eat something
more substantial first because I didn’t have breakfast”— that would be my ego, my ego speaking.
If I happened to have the thought that “I could take my five dollars and donate
it to the charity on campus,” that would be my superego speaking, okay? So in
this example you have the id, ego, and superego. If you can go back and
review the examples I gave you in class on the sheet of paper, that will be another
practice—kinda making sure that you really understand what these individual
parts of personality mean and how you can apply them to specific scenarios,
because the specific scenarios are likely to come up on the exam. Okay, we’re going
to move on and discuss the second very important theory. And that theory is
a Trait Theory of Big Five. So there are different trait theories, and
really, trait theories are about describing human characteristics. They’re
not focused on explaining personality or explaining the development of personality,
such as psychoanalytic theory is or the humanistic theories are. The trait
theory is actually derived empirically through research. The statistical method
that is used is called factor analysis. So it’s a research-based, empirical type of
theory, and it really focuses on describing different traits. In the Big
Five Theory, as the name suggests, there are five traits—more specifically,
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.
So one thing you may find helpful is to think of some keywords or key features
associate with each one of these traits. “Conscientiousness,” you may want to
think about “self-disciplined.” “Agreeableness,” you may want to think
about “friendly and kind.” “Neuroticism”—the keywords associated with
neuroticism, as we mentioned in class, are “emotional instability.” “Openness” can
be a little bit tricky. By “openness,” we mean “openness to experience.” Some of
the keywords would be “imaginative,” “non-conformist,” someone who is an
independent thinker. And finally “extroversion”—as the term implies,
someone who is sociable, assertive, etc. So the first thing you really wanna know
is all these five traits. You wanna know what they are called. And one way you can
make it a little easier for yourself is to go by the acronym “CANOE.” And what
you may want to do next, to be really familiar with the individual main
characteristics of each of these traits, is perhaps to think of people from your
own lives, such as your friends and your family or even yourself, and see if you
can find some very salient features that would be characteristic of one of these
traits. So perhaps you have a friend who is very kind and generous and who would
go to the end of the world for people. So she would be very high on the agreeableness
scale. And see if you can think of more people, with different traits,
and kind of flesh it out, visualize it, picture it, so you know exactly what each
trait represents through these very personal examples. All right, I am going
to stop right here and I will see you next time with the next video. Thank you
for your attention.

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  • Reply Purushottam Bastola March 15, 2017 at 9:06 am

    Thank you so much… very useful (y)

  • Reply Burak Akyön December 19, 2017 at 6:47 pm

    Thank you for the quick review

  • Reply Nirupama Swain April 6, 2018 at 4:27 pm

    Thano you and my daut cellar your episode very good nice and like you okay

  • Reply Sarthak Baral November 12, 2018 at 2:21 pm

    If you were my teacher, I won’t miss a single class

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